Management

ScienceDirect Management & Sport :

  • “The court is now in session…”: Use of mock trial in sport management
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Leeann M. Lower, Daniel W. Jones, Taylor A. Hutton, Whitney N. Jarnagin

    Mock trial is an active, collaborative exercise, grounded in experiential learning, that simulates a court session in which students engage in role-play to achieve intended learning outcomes. Within the United States, the mock trial has been adopted and tested in a variety of academic disciplines due to its transferable objectives and valuable outcomes, yet little is known about the implementation and effectiveness of mock trials in sport management curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to describe my implementation of mock trial in a graduate Sport Law course, discuss evaluative feedback and reflection on the mock trial exercise, and present implications for future practice. While the mock trial was found to enhance critical skills, broaden legal knowledge, and prepare students for a future career in sport, several challenges were identified. The paper concludes with five strategies I intend to implement in future mock trials – bolster student training, review strategies for success, increase time allotted, enhance authenticity, and expand debriefing.





  • Sport business and marketing collaboration in higher education
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Nathan Kirkpatrick, Joseph Pederson, Darin White

    In the spring of 2014, steps were taken at a southeastern university to overhaul an existing Sport Administration curriculum that functioned more as a general physical education and sport program instead of a sport business and leadership program. An almost entirely new major was created, curriculum was designed, and the program was approved by a southeastern university's curriculum committee in May of 2014. Since then, the new Sport Administration major has undergone revisions to continue to enhance the sport business and leadership focus, but also the program has partnered the last two years with the School of Business and Journalism and Mass Communication Department to form sport business, marketing and media partnerships. These unique academic collaborations have allowed for incredible student experiences, shared curriculum, common guest speakers, and increased campus “buy-in” related to sport business initiatives and emphases.





  • Estimating willingness to pay for a cycling event using a willingness to travel approach
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 65

    Author(s): John C. Whitehead, Pamela Wicker

    This study examines the monetary value of nonmarket benefits to participants of an active sport tourism event, such as happiness and pride from participating in an event. Willingness to travel (WTT) greater distances for future events is assessed and converted into willingness to pay (WTP) estimates using travel costs. Using survey data from the 2014 and 2015 Blood Sweat Gears bike ride, the intended visitation models show that changes in travel cost have a significant negative effect. WTP to revisit the event was between $41 and $57. The likelihood of return visit decreases as travel costs increase, indicating that WTP estimates are internally valid. WTP estimates stemming from two years of data collection are stable, suggesting that they are also temporally reliable. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stated preference WTT questions to assign a monetary value to nonmarket benefits of active sport tourists.





  • Results of a utilization-focused evaluation of a Right To Play program for Indigenous youth
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 66

    Author(s): Alexandra Arellano, Tanya Halsall, Tanya Forneris, Cindy Gaudet

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Promoting Life Skills for Aboriginal Youth (PLAY) program that is operated by Right to Play (RTP). The focus of the program is to help youth develop a variety of life skills and become leaders within their communities. Piloted in 2010 with 2 communities, the program is now implemented in 88 communities in Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Alberta. This study applies a utilization-focused evaluation to examine staff perceptions related to program implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis was performed. Themes emerged related to: 1) Integrating program flexibility to help facilitate community ownership, 2) Building capacity through skills training for Community Mentors (CMs), 3) Having a motivated staff and organizational learning, 4) Balancing the integration of culture and 5) Challenges related to adapting to multiple stakeholders and program pace. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant literature and recommendations for program improvements are provided. We also describe program improvements that were made as a result of applying the findings. This research contributes to the expanding literature related to programming for youth and evaluation practice within Indigenous communities.





  • Are sport tourists of an environmental mindset to drive the green? The case of golfers
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: January 2018
    Source:Tourism Management Perspectives, Volume 25

    Author(s): Dino M. Minoli, Mark M.H. Goode, Aidan W. Metcalfe

    This study makes several unique contributions to the fields of environmental psychology, sport tourism and environmental management programmes. Firstly, it evaluates golfers' environmental worldviews using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) attitudinal-measurement scale. Data were drawn from a meta-analysis and survey (n>275) in Wales, UK. Secondly, the five-step Transtheoretical model of change is applied to the average NEP score to develop a tipping point. Thirdly, the study transforms average NEP scores into a percentage and links them to a behavioural willingness to change value (70%). Interestingly, the study yielded a golfers' NEP score of 58% that did not vary with demographics. The methodology is also applied to 32 similar studies to generate NEP percentages and compare them against the NEP percentage score of willingness to change. Finally, the golfers' NEP percentage value is visually presented on a behaviour change thermostat as a simple means to engage stakeholders' discussion on this topic.





  • Sochi 2014 Olympics on Twitter: Perspectives of hosts and guests
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: December 2017
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 63

    Author(s): Andrei P. Kirilenko, Svetlana O. Stepchenkova

    Mega sports events create multiple benefits for the host country but can also bring into focus the political and social problems. This study provides a comprehensive description of the public discourse about Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics on Twitter in two languages, Russian and English. The former represents the perspective of hosts and the latter – that of the guests. The study traces the temporal dynamics of the most salient issues and conducts sentiment analysis of public attitudes. It also examines whether sentiments toward the Games changed as the event unfolded, that is, whether the event succeeded in creating a more positive image of the Games. It was found that while the positive attitudes expressed in the tweets about the Sochi Olympics improved throughout the course of the Games, this improvement was practically significant only for the hosts' segment of the sample, with much smaller improvement in the guests’ segment.

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  • Wage against the machine: A generalized deep-learning market test of dataset value
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
    Source:International Journal of Forecasting

    Author(s): Philip Z. Maymin

    How can you tell whether a particular sports dataset really adds value, particularly with regard to betting effectiveness? The method introduced in this paper provides a way for any analyst in almost any sport to attempt to determine the additional value of almost any dataset. It relies on the use of deep learning, comprehensive historical box score statistics, and the existence of betting markets. When the method is applied as an illustration to a novel dataset for the NBA, it is shown to provide more information than regular box score statistics alone, and appears to generate above-breakeven wagering profits.





  • Residents' support for a mega-event: The case of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Natal, Brazil
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management

    Author(s): Dogan Gursoy, Marcelo Chiarelli Milito, Robin Nunkoo

    This study examines the impacts of residents’ trust along with other factors such as community concerns, eco-centric values, and community attachment on local residents’ perceived impacts of and their support for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil. A theoretical model developed on the premise of social exchange theory is tested utilizing data collected from the residents of Natal, Brazil, that hosted three games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Findings indicate that expected benefits is the most critical determinant of locals’ support/opposition for hosting a mega-event in their community. Trust is found to have the strongest influence on locals’ perceptions of the positive and negative impacts of the game. While the community attachment is found to have significant impact on costs perceptions, community concern significantly influences locals’ benefit perceptions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.





  • Understanding users’ continuance intentions to use smart-connected sports products
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Jaeki Song, Junghwan Kim, Kwangmin Cho

    The authors investigate the salient factors that influence users’ continuance intentions to use smart-connected sports products. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), they propose that three major factors—attitude, social comparison as social influence, and perceived behavioral control—significantly influence users’ continuance intentions. Smart-connected sports product users (N =236) participated in this study. Collected data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) modeling. Results suggest two different attitudinal beliefs—technology-related (perceived usefulness) and fashion-related (perceived comfort) factors—of smart-connected sports products influence attitudes toward the products and that control-related factors (technical functionality and facilitating conditions) play a role in regulating users’ volitional behaviors from their intentions. The authors highlight user beliefs of smart-connected sports products based on TPB and propose a concrete, practical set of factors that practitioners might manipulate to facilitate users’ continuance intentions to use smart-connected sports products.





  • Educating managers for equity and social justice: Integrating Indigenous knowledges and perspectives in Australian sport, recreation and event management curricula
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 21, Part B

    Author(s): Tamara Young, Ruth Sibson, Amy Maguire

    The past two decades have witnessed a shift from stand-alone and critically reflexive leisure studies programs into an assortment of sport, tourism, hospitality, events, and (outdoor) active recreation management-focused programs. This shift, driven by student and University led demand for more vocational and employability oriented degrees, has reduced the criticality of leisure studies and, consequently, its capacity to evaluate the particular relationships between Indigenous peoples and leisure, sport and recreation in Australia. In this article, we introduce the concept of ‘Indigenisation’ and demonstrate the demand for leisure and sport studies curricula that embed Indigenous-related content, knowledges and perspectives. We provide a case study of efforts to Indigenise the Sport, Recreation and Event Management program at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia. This case study provides the context for a critical reflection from a leisure studies educator, and a set of recommendations for how criticality and reflexive teaching and learning practice can be more effectively integrated into twenty-first century leisure and sport studies education.





  • People with disabilities and sport: An exploration of topic inclusion in sport management
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 21, Part A

    Author(s): Brenda G. Pitts, Deborah R. Shapiro

    Sport management curriculum standards (COSMA, 2016) require sport management programs to prepare students to work in a “diverse sport management environment” (p. 54). People with disabilities in sport is a growing segment of the sport business industry with viable jobs and careers for graduates. There is also a movement to include people with disabilities in “mainstream” sport. Sport management professionals must be informed of these current trends and issues. Thus, it is crucial to examine course content in relation to diversity, specifically disability sport. This study explored if sport management faculty included any content about people with disabilities and sport, what topics or content is included, and how it is included. Specifically, this study was limited to the one course in which an overview of the sport business industry and the study of sport management are introduced, the traditional introduction to sport management course. Result show inclusion of topics such as the Paralympic Games or Paralympic sport, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Special Olympics International, and inclusion/integration of disabled athletes. A total of 16% of respondents indicated they do not include disability sport content in their introduction class. The connection of this content to sport management curriculum standards, methods of teaching disability sport, and implications for curriculum development are discussed.

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  • Examining sport communications practitioners’ approaches to issues management and crisis response in Northern Ireland
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Public Relations Review, Volume 43, Issue 4

    Author(s): Paul J. Kitchin, Peter A. Purcell

    A lack of practitioner insight into managing the ‘crisis response’ is a glaring gap in the communications literature, and its subset of sport communications, that exacerbates the academic-practitioner divide. Senior sport communications professionals in Northern Ireland provided their perspectives on issues and crisis management via in-depth interviews. Findings revealed that practitioners pay considerable attention to the ‘tipping point’, the point where a crisis emerged from an existing issue marking the initiation of a crisis response. Declaring a crisis was deemed a last resort in the management of issues due to declarations being associated with resource and reputational risks. Practitioners developed their own methods for managing the crisis response, however reflection upon academic approaches informed these views. Capacity issues within the sport sector in the region means that traditional media remain the practitioners’ most important stakeholder in a crisis. Areas for further research for (sport) issues management and crisis communications are provided.





  • Accidentology of mountain sports: An insight provided by the systemic modelling of accident and near-miss sequences
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Safety Science, Volume 99, Part A

    Author(s): Maud Vanpoulle, E. Vignac, B. Soulé

    Accidents are notoriously frequent in mountain sports, but thorough understanding of the mechanisms of accidentality remains limited by the fragmentation of sources and by mostly heterogeneous methodologies. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of prevention must rely on detailed knowledge of typical circumstances and scenarios. Rooted in the statement that an accident is never induced by a single cause but rather by a dynamic combination of factors, this paper explores the opportunities offered by a systemic analysis of experience feedbacks on accidents and close calls. The study identifies risk factors for several hundred mountaineering accident and near miss reports. In order to enhance the benefit of these descriptions and to show the interaction of a broad variety of contributing factors, it introduces graphic models. This is not an attempt to compress the unique richness of each story, but rather to create a tree structure using the concatenation of multiple testimonials, thus enabling researchers to build general lessons out of individual cases.





  • Consumer experience quality: A review and extension of the sport management literature
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Masayuki Yoshida

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies examining the roles of the core sport product, ancillary services, social interactions among consumers, and relationship marketing programs in the sport context has grown. However, it is also true that these topics have been advanced in many independent research endeavors depending on the touch points (e.g., sport, service, social, and communication encounters) being assessed. To integrate this body of research with sport consumer behavior, the purpose of this conceptual paper, which represents a contribution to the 20th anniversary of Sport Management Review (SMR), is to introduce the construct of consumer experience quality as consisting of four important dimensions – core product, service, social network, and relationship investment quality – into the sport management literature. In order to explain the utility of the proposed construct in the sport context, this article presents an integrative conceptual framework that draws on multiple theories and bodies of literature. A series of propositions are offered to not only understand the role of consumer experience quality in sport consumer decision-making, but also to specify the conditions under which sport consumers are more likely to be satisfied with the core sport product and ancillary services, feel and behave in response to brand-related stimuli, and engage in both transactional and non-transactional behaviors. The paper concludes that future research should be directed at testing the propositions offered in the conceptual framework.





  • Organizational hybridity: A conceptualization of how sport for development and peace organizations respond to divergent institutional demands
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Per G. Svensson

    An abundance of institutional logics is associated with the area of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Unfortunately, the ways in which SDP entities respond to conflicting institutional demands has received little scholarly attention. Therefore, the author examines the concept of organizational hybridity and its applicability in SDP. The divergent nature between institutional logics allow for organizational actors to reconfigure elements into new creative hybrid arrangements. Drawing on relevant literature from related disciplines, the author identifies and examines four theoretical types of hybrids in the SDP context: differentiated, symbolic, integrated, and dysfunctional. The internal dynamics and managerial implications associated with each hybrid type are further examined. In addition, a research agenda for how future scholarship can draw on this concept to generate new knowledge of these types of sport organizations is also outlined.





  • Time and money expenditure in sports participation: The role of income in consuming the most practiced sports activities in Flanders
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Erik Thibaut, John Eakins, Steven Vos, Jeroen Scheerder

    Given the recent economic crisis and the risen poverty rates, sports managers need to get insight in the effect of income and other socio-economic determinants on the household time and money that is spent on sports participation. By means of a Tobit regression, this study analyses the magnitude of the income effect for the thirteen most practiced sports by households in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), which are soccer, swimming, dance, cycling, running, fitness, tennis, horse riding, winter sports, martial arts, volleyball, walking and basketball. The results demonstrate that income has a positive effect on both time and money expenditure on sports participation, although differences are found between the 13 sports activities. For example, the effect of income on time and money expenditure is relatively high for sports activities like running and winter sports, while it is lower for other sports such as fitness, horse riding, walking and swimming. Commercial enterprises can use the results of this study to identify which sports to focus on, and how they will organise their segmentation process. For government, the results demonstrate which barriers prevent people from taking part in specific sports activities, based upon which they should evaluate their policy decisions.





  • Network governance of a multi-level, multi-sectoral sport event: Differences in coordinating ties and actors
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Milena M. Parent, Christian Rouillard, Michael L. Naraine

    To understand how partners within a large, multi-sectoral network coordinated amongst one another, this paper empirically determined stakeholders’ network capital vis-à-vis centrality by focusing on the relationships within the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. An embedded case study was built using 6382 pages of documents (e.g., meeting minutes, memos, newspaper articles, and annual reports) and 55 interviews, and analyzed using social network analysis. The results revealed actors used eight types of ties in their coordination efforts: collaboration, communication, coordinating bridge, instrumental, legal, regulatory, transactional, internal link, and external link. Also, highly centralized actors were context specific to each level of government, with the organizing committee and federal secretariat emerging as the most critical for coordination efforts. Findings empirically demonstrate the importance of the national/federal government to coordinate multi-sectoral sport event networks. Thus, sport event partners can consider structuring an event’s network administrative organization to fit their differing strategic goals.





  • Sport managers’ perspectives on poverty and sport: The role of local sport authorities
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Hanne Vandermeerschen, Jeroen Scheerder

    Poverty and social exclusion are ‘wicked issues’ and require a joint approach from a wide array of policy fields. As practicing sport has become a customary activity, it has a part to play in fighting social exclusion. But to what extent is this a realistic expectation? Drawing on qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews at twenty local sport authorities in Flanders (Belgium), the aim of this study is to gain insight in the experiences of local sport authorities with people in poverty, and to identify barriers and facilitators for investing in the inclusion of this social group. Results indicate that facilitating inclusion for people in poverty is a challenging task for local sport managers. Policy initiatives, if any, often remain limited to providing financial discounts. Only a minority of local sport managers reported more comprehensive policies, involving different strategies. A major problem is the limited understanding and expertise of local sport managers with regard to poverty. Therefore, cooperation between sport managers and organisations from the social sector is crucial. Recommendations as to how the role of local sport authorities as a facilitator of social inclusion can be strengthened are formulated.





  • Lifting the veil on allowing headscarves in football: A co-constructed and analytical autoethnography
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: November 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 5

    Author(s): Michele Cox, Geoff Dickson, Barbara Cox

    In this article, the authors provide an analytical, co-constructed autoethnography of the first author's efforts to change Law Four of the Laws of Football. Law Four did not allow players to wear clothing or equipment that was dangerous or made any political, religious, or personal statement. The contentious issue was head coverings, and more specifically, the headscarf, an article of female clothing common to hijab within Muslim communities. The co-constructed approach required the first author to write her story. The co-authors role was to probe the emerging narrative, using related theory. Underpinned by an interest in micropolitical exchange process within a multi-level governance structure, the first author's experiences showcase passive resistance, rhetoric, problem framing, expert knowledge, insider knowledge, coalition building, and punishment by exclusion.





  • Temporal manifestations of nostalgia: Le Tour de France
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 8 October 2017
    Source:Annals of Tourism Research

    Author(s): Sheranne Fairley, Heather Gibson, Matthew Lamont

    Nostalgia in sport tourism is increasingly understood as multifaceted. Early conceptualizations of nostalgia may be inadequate in explaining contemporary sport tourism. Utilising an organized tour of the 2011 Tour de France, a hybrid experience combining active cycling with passive spectating, interviews were conducted with 13 tour participants and two tour guides. A grounded theory model reflecting multiple dimensions of nostalgia across three trip phases is proposed. Pre-trip, nostalgia inspired participation. During the trip participants viewed and acted upon desires to engage with preconceived nostalgic images by cycling iconic mountains. Mementos and experiences were collected to facilitate future memories and aid nostalgic recollections post-trip. The study demonstrates how sport tourists adopt multiple, reflexive roles to enrich nostalgic value throughout a trip.





  • Accumulating subcultural capital through sport event participation: The AFL International Cup
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Sheranne Fairley, Danny O’Brien

    In this study, the authors use participant interviews to examine how participating in an international event enabled the accumulation of subcultural capital. The authors conducted interviews with players (N =9) in the Australian Football League (AFL) International Cup from Canada, USA, New Zealand, and Ireland. The AFL International Cup created a liminal state offering individuals with opportunities for: (a) national representation; (b) international competition and comparison; (c) cross-cultural learning and interaction; (d) sport subcultural engagement; and, (d) authentic game experiences. The resulting experience enabled participants a deeper connection with the sport subculture, which created the potential for sport advocacy in their home countries. Results will assist international sport event hosts in creating meaningful participant experiences that facilitate deeper personal attachments to the sporting subculture.





  • A knockout to the NFL’s reputation?: A case study of the NFL’s crisis communications strategies in response to the Ray Rice scandal
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: September 2017
    Source:Public Relations Review, Volume 43, Issue 3

    Author(s): Othello Richards JR, Christopher Wilson, Kris Boyle, Jordan Mower

    The NFL was largely criticized for its mishandling of the Ray Rice controversy in 2014. This study identifies crisis communication strategies that both followed and deviated from established research-based models. Further, the study evaluates whether and how these response strategies were mismatched with the perceived level of crisis responsibility as predicted by theory. The results of this case illustrate the consequences of mismatching crisis communications strategies with perceived crisis responsibility. This study demonstrates the need for scholars to identify and study potential buffering factors that can shield organizations from short-term consequences of a crisis. Moreover, it suggests that researchers need to better understand the cumulative effect of negative reputation and crisis history that can accrue over time.





  • The impact of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement in sports clubs: A multi-level analysis
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Philipp Swierzy, Pamela Wicker, Christoph Breuer

    As volunteerism occurs in an organizational context, both individual factors and organizational characteristics affect (potential) volunteers in sports clubs. Whereas a number of researchers have studied individual-level determinants, knowledge on the role of organizational-level factors is limited. Based on the concept of organizational capacity, in the present study, the authors investigate whether and how human resources, financial, and structural capacities of sports clubs influence individual voluntary engagement. Using data from German football and track and field clubs (n =296) and their members (n =1222), the effects of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement within two subsamples, adult members and parents of underage members, are examined. The results of multi-level mixed effects regression analyses show that all capacity dimensions are significantly associated with voluntary engagement of both adult members and parents of underage members. A larger number of members and a greater share of volunteers reduce the amount of time a volunteer devotes to voluntary work; adult members are less likely to volunteer when their club has a balanced budget; and strategic planning increases the likelihood of individuals to volunteer informally. Overall, the results support the notion that the organizational context is more relevant to volunteering of adult members than individual characteristics and equally relevant to parents of underage members. Managerial implications to facilitate volunteering, such as shifting club goals towards youth development and sports for all provision, are discussed.





  • Sport team emotion: Conceptualization, scale development and validation
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Seunghwan Lee, Yukyoum Kim, Bob Heere

    The purpose of this study was to identify key emotions associated with professional sport team brands and to develop a valid, reliable scale to measure the recall of these emotions. A pool of 30 potential emotions was drawn through a content analysis, a qualitative study (n =67), frequency analysis (n =560), and categorization process. The identified emotions were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (n =260) and confirmatory factor analysis (n =286). The emotion recall scale consists of 24 emotions representing 7 dimensions: connectedness, elation, competitiveness, surprise, anger, unhappiness, and worry. The authors offer evidence of internal consistency of the scale and convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity evidence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.





  • Volunteerism and volunteer management in sport
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: August 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 4

    Author(s): Pamela Wicker

    This article reflects on existing research examining volunteerism and volunteer management in sport from individual, institutional, multi-level, and policy perspectives. The overview reveals that a substantial body of knowledge has been generated, particularly on the individual perspective and, to a lesser extent, on the institutional perspective. Existing studies from the individual perspective have mainly examined antecedents and experiences of volunteers in sport organizations and at sport events, focusing on topics such as motivation, commitment, and satisfaction, while consequences of volunteerism have attracted less research. On the institutional perspective, research efforts have focused on topics such as recruitment and retention of volunteers and performance management. Studies taking a multi-level perspective give indications about how the institutional or community context affects volunteerism and volunteer management. From a policy perspective, research has mainly looked at challenges for volunteerism resulting from policy implementation and the monetary value of voluntary work. The overview also reveals that many studies have examined the mass of volunteers in general or volunteers in leading positions, while other groups of volunteers, such as voluntary coaches and referees, have attracted less research. After reflecting on topics examined and key findings, the article provides suggestions for future research within each perspective, ensuring that all perspectives and groups of volunteers are attended to.





  • Passion and pride in professional sports: Investigating the role of workplace emotion
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: August 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 4

    Author(s): Steve Swanson, Aubrey Kent

    The current study examined the influence of passion and pride on employees of professional sport organizations. Anecdotally, much has been noted about the role that emotions play in making the sport industry one of the world’s largest and most visible. However, empirical investigation is lacking in relation to those who choose a career in this environment. Results from an analysis of 933 employee survey responses representing 89 teams across 5 leagues suggest that passion and pride play an important role influencing commonly-assessed workplace attitudes and behaviors. Notably, obsessive passion seems to work in a distinctly positive fashion within professional sport workplaces, as compared to its negative influence on employees within other non-sport industries researched previously.





  • The influence of sports participation on academic performance among students in higher education
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: August 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 4

    Author(s): Fernando Muñoz-Bullón, Maria J. Sanchez-Bueno, Antonio Vos-Saz

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect that participating in extracurricular sporting activities has on academic performance among students in higher education. Prior research on this topic has yielded contradictory results: while some authors find a positive effect of sports participation on academic outcomes, others report a negative impact. Accordingly, the authors seek to provide a more rounded understanding of these mixed findings. The empirical evidence is provided by a panel dataset of undergraduate students who studied at a Spanish University over the period 2008–2014. The academic performance of sports participants are compared with those of non-participants in terms of their outcomes in the form of grades. Results reveal that participation in formal sporting activities is associated with higher grades among students at this university. The analysis reinforces the idea that apart from their health benefits for practitioners, sporting activities lead to the attainment of the performance goals to which higher education institutions aspire.





  • Examining the antecedents of sport team brand equity: A dual-identification perspective
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Michael Chih-Hung Wang, Ya-Yun Tang

    Although the practice of building brand equity in the context of professional sport teams is popular, the formation of sport team brand equity in the sport marketing literature is still relatively unknown and incompletely understood. In this study, the authors propose a dual-identification model to examine the formation of sport team brand equity in an Asia-based professional team sport setting. Baseball fans (N =548) of the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) in Taiwan participated in the self-administered survey. A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model analysis revealed that marketplace characteristics (including group experience, salient experience, team history, and fan rituals) and brand-identified-related factors (including self-congruity and team brand prestige) were significantly related to identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand, respectively. In turn, both identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand were significant predictors of sport team brand equity. These findings highlight the importance of studying a dual-identification model in order to understand how sport team brand equity forms and suggest implications for sport team managers.





  • Leadership in governance: Exploring collective board leadership in sport governance systems
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Lesley Ferkins, David Shilbury, Ian O’Boyle

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore a working conceptualisation of collective board leadership in a federal sport network. In this paper, the authors examine the relationship between collective leadership and governance systems specifically within the non-profit sport organisation context, bringing together notions of collective board leadership and collaborative governance. Neither concept has yet been presented in tandem for the benefit of developing sport governance knowledge and practice. As an outcome of the conceptualising, the authors make explicit the multiple levels of the sport governance system and pose two broad research directions that will help advance theory and drive a better understanding of collective board leadership within these types of governance systems. A central premise of this paper is that the sport management field is lacking literature that brings together leadership and governance, and that collective leadership is a topic where the intersection of leadership and governance renders advancement for both bodies of work. The authors offer implications for future work in collective leadership for sport governance.





  • Explaining attendance through the brand community triad: Integrating network theory and team identification
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Matthew Katz, Rose Marie Ward, Bob Heere

    In this study, the authors empirically test a model of sport behaviour that integrates both team identification and a network theory approach to understand attendance at intercollegiate ice hockey games. Grounded within the brand community triad, ego network data were collected among attendees to measure the fan-to-fan connections that constitute the horizontal relationships of brand community participants. Additionally, a multidimensional team identification measure was used to illustrate the vertical relationship between individual and team. Both measures were included in a structural equation model to test how both fan-to-fan and fan-team relationships explain attendance. The results from the model support the salience of both dimensions of the brand community triad, suggesting that understanding sport fan behaviour necessitates including both psychological and structural elements of behaviour. Future suggestions for extending the study of sport fans through structural networks are discussed.





  • eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Daniel C. Funk, Anthony D. Pizzo, Bradley J. Baker

    Consumer demand for eSport and the growth of organized video game competitions has generated considerable attention from the sport, event, and entertainment industries. eSport therefore represents a novel and popular area for sport management academics to conduct research, educate students, and service industry. However, despite growth and acceptance by consumers and practitioners, academics debate eSport’s position within the domain of sport management, their debates largely concentrated around the question of whether eSport can be classified as sport. In this article, the authors argue for the inclusion of organized eSport events and competitions within sport management vis-à-vis eSport’s meeting certain defining criteria of sport in general. eSport’s connection to traditional sport and defining characteristics are addressed to support eSport’s role as a sport entertainment product recognized by industry as representing a substantial growth opportunity for sport and related organizations. As eSport continues to evolve, practitioners face managerial challenges that are similar to those in traditional sport, particularly in areas of governance and diversity. Sport management academics should embrace the potential of eSport in order to examine this evolution and provide guidance to industry through education and research.





  • Social and charitable impacts of a charity-affiliated sport event: A mixed methods study
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Yuhei Inoue, Caroline Heffernan, Taku Yamaguchi, Kevin Filo

    In this mixed methods research, the authors examine a unique type of small-scale event – a charity-affiliated sport event – and define and measure its social and charitable impacts as perceived by residents. Findings from interviews (N =37) and surveys (N =459) with residents indicated that the event’s social impacts can be defined by its capacity to develop social capital, enhance collective identity and pride, and promote sport, health, and well-being. Three types of charitable impacts also emerged, including empathy for cause, informational support, and tangible support. Of them, empathy for cause, which addresses a central social issue in the host community, had the strongest association with residents’ perceptions of social impacts. These results provide evidence of a variety of positive impacts that a charity-affiliated sport event has on a community, which can be used to bolster appeals for corporate sponsorship and government support to assist in event delivery.





  • Political activity in escalation of commitment: Sport facility funding and government decision making in the United States
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Michael Hutchinson, Brennan K. Berg, Timothy B. Kellison

    In the United States, the decision to commit extensive public resources to sport facilities is a contentious topic of debate. Elected officials often commit substantial public resources to sport facility projects amidst contrary empirical evidence and mixed residential approval. This behavior not only implicates the presence of political activity to advance a course of action, but also suggests an escalation of commitment (EoC), the subject of this study. The authors implemented a collective case study approach to examine three municipalities with long-standing histories of subsidizing professional sport facilities. Data collected from influential elected officials and public leaders (N =13) as well as documents and records revealed (a) political action to be essential in EoC with decisions involving multiple stakeholder groups; (b) the influence and interaction of political action within each EoC determinant; (c) the substantial role of support, resources, power, and influence in efforts to increase and prevent commitment to a failing course of action; and (d) noticeable spillover effects from use of political activity in EoC.





  • Leveraging community sport organizations to promote community capacity: Strategic outcomes, challenges, and theoretical considerations
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Gareth J. Jones, Michael B. Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds, Jordan W. Smith

    Community sport organizations (CSOs) provide valuable contexts for promoting community development. These initiatives are most effective when they involve local stakeholders in the process of development. A key first step to achieving this objective is building community capacity, defined as local stakeholders’ skills, knowledge, and resources that may be leveraged for change. Interestingly, despite this conceptual importance, few researchers have focused on capacity building in the sport context. This has limited the theoretical advancement of community capacity theory as it relates to CSOs and community development. Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors analyze the outcomes and challenges of implementing community capacity building strategies in an American CSO, and draw on the empirical data to contribute to this theoretical conversation. Interviews, participant observation, and document analysis were used to generate data, and deductive techniques were used for thematic analysis. The results highlight the outcomes of the capacity building strategies and challenges associated with implementation. In addition, the conclusion focuses on theoretical contributions to community capacity theory, namely the role of sport in facilitating inter-community relations across social groups and the link with process models of organizational capacity.





  • Embracing the sportification of society: Defining e-sports through a polymorphic view on sport
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Bob Heere

    In this paper, the author argues that, regardless of whether e-sports qualify as sports, they should be examined in sport management because they are a manifestation of sportification. Sportification means to either: (a) view, organize, or regulate a non-sport activity in such a way that it resembles a sport and allows a fair, pleasurable, and safe environment for individuals to compete and cooperate, and compare their performances to each other, and future and past performances; or (b) add a sport component to an existing activity in order to make it more attractive to its audiences. As the sport industry itself is embracing e-sports as a sport, scholars should embrace e-sports as a manifestation of sportification and examine their negative and positive effect on our industry.





  • Investor sentiment, soccer games and stock returns
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
    Source:Research in International Business and Finance

    Author(s): Nebojsa Dimic, Manfred Neudl, Vitaly Orlov, Janne Äijö

    This study investigates the nature of stock price reactions of publicly-traded soccer clubs following league matches. Consolidating data on soccer games and betting odds, results suggest that the magnitude and the character of investor reactions vary considerably after the release of negative and positive information. Price response to positive information increases in surprise to resolution of uncertainty, while bad information connotes negative and vast reactions regardless of the surprise component. Moreover, negative news is more slowly absorbed by the stock market than positive news. Finally, investor reactions are larger following the games with considerable emotional component.





  • Sports fan experience: Electronic word-of-mouth in ephemeral social media
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Lane T. Wakefield, Gregg Bennett

    Fans consuming sporting events commonly use social media to spread electronic-word-of-mouth (eWOM) related to their experiences. Ephemeral social media, an emerging form of social media that auto-deletes content after a prescribed time, allows fans to have greater control over their messages than ever before. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate factors leading fans to lengthen or shorten the lifespan of their social media content. A nationwide panel (N =242) created social media content in a controlled setting in which the fan experience and audience size were manipulated. Results suggest fans having a positive experience or who were broadcasting to a large audience were likely to share their content for a longer period of time. In contrast, fans having other than positive experiences, sharing with a small audience, or displaying greater team identification wished to limit the availability of their content. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.





  • Sport team personality: It’s not all about winning!
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Ashley Stadler Blank, Joerg Koenigstorfer, Hans Baumgartner

    As there is still no commonly accepted scale to measure the brand personality of sport teams, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Sport Team Personality Scale (STPS) in a professional sport context. The authors conducted a series of studies in the United States and United Kingdom with fans of the English Premier League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Football League, and the National Hockey League. The STPS contains 18 items that load onto six factors: success, talent, entertainment, dedication, admiration, and care. The authors compared this new scale with existing sport team personality scales and used it to explore team identification and perceptual similarities and differences among teams. Results indicate that teams map along performance (i.e., success and talent) and character (i.e., admiration and care) factors and that the character factor is a more important source of team identification than the performance factor. Taken together, these results illustrate how the STPS can help sport managers position and differentiate teams within a league to improve marketing outcomes.





  • Challenges and strategies of building and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships in sport for development and peace
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Jon Welty Peachey, Adam Cohen, Nari Shin, Bruno Fusaro

    While sport management scholars have explored inter-organizational partnerships and their associated challenges, they have devoted less attention to inter-organizational partnership development and sustainability in sport for development and peace (SDP), particularly across a wide range of organizations with varied missions and foci. Hence, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine challenges faced by SDP organizations when forming and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships across contexts and partnership types, and to uncover strategies they have employed to overcome these challenges. Common challenges encountered across 29 SDP organizations included competition for resources, skepticism of sport as a development tool, unequal power relations, misaligned goals and mission drift, and implementation issues. Strategies included focusing on building relationships and networks, demonstrating benefits to partner, starting small then diversifying, keeping focused on mission and goals, involving partner, and treating the partnership as a business relationship. Theoretical extensions and practical implications are discussed, along with directions for future research.





  • Developmental processes and motivations for linkages in cross-sectoral sport clusters
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Anna Gerke, Kathy Babiak, Geoff Dickson, Michel Desbordes

    Interorganisational linkages are a widely studied topic in sport management. However, most researchers focus on public or non-profit organisations and analyse one focal organisation rather than a network of interrelated organisations. The purpose of this study was to address both of these shortcomings by investigating interorganisational linkages in sport clusters, a type of cross-sectoral network. The authors address three main questions: (a) what is the nature of interorganisational linkages in sport clusters; (b) how do linkages in sport clusters develop; and (c) what are the organisational motivations for creating or joining linkages in sport clusters? A multiple case study approach explores two sailing clusters in France and New Zealand. Results show that interorganisational relationships tend to be formalised, while interorganisational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process from formal relationships to formal networks via informal relationships and networks was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of interorganisational linkages. This research contributes to sport management practice by showcasing the potential multitude and variety of interorganisational linkages in a cross-sectoral sport context which are foundations for cooperation and collaboration. The theoretical contribution lies in the conceptualising of the IOR development process and different motivational patterns as antecedents.





  • Prediction from regional angst – A study of NFL sentiment in Twitter using technical stock market charting
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Decision Support Systems, Volume 98

    Author(s): Robert P. Schumaker, Chester S. Labedz, A. Tomasz Jarmoszko, Leonard L. Brown

    To predict NFL game outcomes, we examine the application of technical stock market techniques to sentiment gathered from social media. From our analysis we found a $14.84 average return per sentiment-based wager compared to a $12.21 average return loss on the entire 256 games of the 2015–2016 regular season if using an odds-only approach. We further noted that wagers on underdogs (i.e., the less favored teams) that exhibit a “golden cross” pattern in sentiment (e.g., the most recent sentiment signal crosses the longer baseline sentiment), netted a $48.18 return per wager on 41 wagers. These results show promise of cross-domain research and we believe that applying stock market techniques to sports wagering may open an entire new research area.





  • Predicting behavioral loyalty through corporate social responsibility: The mediating role of involvement and commitment
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 75

    Author(s): Yuhei Inoue, Daniel C. Funk, Heath McDonald

    This study examines whether consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities can predict behavioral loyalty, and how two attitudinal constructs drawing from the means-end chain model—involvement and commitment—mediate this relationship. A field study of 634 customers of an Australian professional football team was conducted by combining attitudinal surveys with actual behavioral data collected one year later. The results revealed a positive mediating effect of involvement on the relationship between perceived CSR and behavioral loyalty. However, when the effect of involvement on behavioral loyalty was mediated by commitment, the indirect effect of perceived CSR turned negative. The findings of this study indicate that the contribution of CSR initiatives to behavioral loyalty is not as robust as past research suggests, and is also contingent upon specific psychological states activated by consumers' perceptions of such initiatives.





  • A gap in the sport management curriculum: An analysis of sexual harassment and sexual assault education in the United States
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 20

    Author(s): Elizabeth A. Taylor, Robin Hardin

    Sport is a space possessing a permissive rape culture due to its masculine culture, and male-dominated professions have higher levels of sexual harassment and incivility compared to those industries that are gender equal or female-dominated. This research examined sport management students’ education and training on sexual harassment and sexual assault. Findings demonstrate that less than 50% of students are exposed to education on sexual harassment (46.1%) or sexual assault (35.9%) in the classroom, and less than 40% are exposed to training on sexual harassment (39.6%) or sexual assault (28.4%) in the internship setting. Students may be entering the professional workforce without the proper knowledge and training in regards to these issues.

    Graphical abstract

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  • Employers’ expectations of the employability skills needed in the sport and recreation environment
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 20

    Author(s): E. Tsitskari, M. Goudas, E. Tsalouchou, M. Michalopoulou

    This study aimed to test the applicability of the Survey of Employability Skills Needed in the Workforce (SESNW) (Robinson, 2006) in Greek sport employers. One hundred ninety three employers from three sectors participated in the study. Consecutive EFAs led to six robust factors of employability skills, labeled Professional Behavior & Development, Leadership & Influence, Problem Solving, Organization & Time Management, Communication Ability and (Inter)Personal skills. All factors were highly rated by the employers were no differences occurred between employment sectors. By understanding the competencies expected by employers, Universities may better align undergraduate programs with industry needs, enhancing the graduates' employability.

    Graphical abstract

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  • Management control in pulsating organisations—A multiple case study of popular culture events
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Management Accounting Research, Volume 35

    Author(s): Martin Carlsson-Wall, Kalle Kraus, Louise Karlsson

    Major events comprise an important aspect of popular culture. The pulsating nature of event organisations implies that they quickly expand at the time of the event and then contract. By examining six sport event organisations, detailed action planning was found to be crucial to ensure that both the structure and flexibility were guaranteed when the event took place. Detailed action planning served as the backbone in the chain of control in each case, connecting the evaluation based on non-financial measures with the budgeting, and with policies and procedures that were applied during the process. It created a shared understanding of the breakdown of responsibilities and duties and made it possible to clarify the role each individual played within the system and to determine when and how improvisation was needed. Our findings thereby provide important boundary conditions to the literature on ‘minimal structures’ by making it clear that ‘minimal’ management controls are not sufficient to handle the balance between structure and flexibility in pulsating organisations, which often rely on thousands of inexperienced employees to work together for a very short period of time. Detailed action planning helped create ‘operational representation’ (Bigley and Roberts, 2001), i.e. the basic cognitive infrastructure permitting individuals and groups to effectively integrate their behaviours with those of others on a moment-to-moment basis as the event unfolds. We also contribute by explaining important management control differences across the six organisations through the distinction between participation- and spectator-driven events.





  • Managing sport-for-development: Reflections and outlook
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 3

    Author(s): Nico Schulenkorf

    The field of sport-for-development (SFD) has experienced significant growth and increased academic rigor over the past 15 years. As sport management scholars have started to critically investigate and evaluate SFD programs, they have in turn contributed to the future design and improvement of SFD initiatives that today are more strategically planned and pedagogically sound than ever before. As part of the 20th anniversary series of Sport Management Review, the author looks back at some of the key achievements of sport management scholarship and proposes new and exciting areas for future enquiry. In particular, while past research can be classified under the four headings of SFD programming and design; sustainable management and capacity building; creating and leveraging impacts and outcomes; and conceptual/theoretical advancements, the author suggests that future studies may attend to the managerial concepts of leadership, entrepreneurship and Design Thinking to maximise the potential of sport (management) to contribute to desired, innovative and sustained community development outcomes.





  • Do they make a difference? Professional team sports clubs’ effects on migration and local growth: Evidence from Denmark
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 3

    Author(s): Rasmus K. Storm, Frederik Thomsen, Tor Georg Jakobsen

    It is a common argument in Denmark that municipal involvement in professional team sports can be justified on the grounds of local impact. The use of public funds to directly or indirectly subsidise local professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) is often seen as warranted due to the PTSCs’ positive effects on local economic growth or (inbound) municipal migration. However, can PTSCs be associated with tangible effects at all? This question has never been answered properly in a European context. Based on data covering the 2008–2013 period, and using spatial panel regression models, this article examines this issue in relation to three dominant professional sports in Denmark: football (soccer), handball and ice hockey. The study finds effects for only one of the sports examined, with Danish handball clubs exercising a marginal effect on average income. Ice hockey’s effect is negative and football remains insignificant in all models deployed. Concerning migration, negative effects are found in relation to female handball clubs. These findings are consistent with previous research and have implications for local sport policies and managers. Municipal politicians, public authorities or sport managers should no longer rationalise the use of public funds for local PTSCs on the assumption of (tangible) economic effects or population growth, as it appears to be an inefficient use of public money. If policy makers want to increase municipal income or inbound migration, they should engage themselves in developing more appropriate strategies.





  • Gains from horizontal collaboration among ski areas
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 60

    Author(s): Martin Falk

    Ski areas are known to expand by linking their lifts to neighbouring systems. Based on data from approximately 250 winter sport destinations in Austria, pooled over the years 1998–2014, this study explores the effects of such horizontal collaboration on the number of overnights stays in the area. A difference-in-differences (DID) approach combined with propensity score matching shows that new lift-linkages or expansions lead to a consolidation in the number of overnight stays at a level 12 per cent higher than before the introduction of the lift-link. However, there is a certain degree of heterogeneity in the causal effects. Satellite ski areas, remote villages and those who combine lift-linking with new connecting slopes benefit the most. More recent lift-linkages seem to lead to smaller gains than those established in the early years.





  • Living with imperfect comparisons: The challenges and limitations of comparative paralympic sport policy research
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Mathew Dowling, Phil Brown, David Legg, Aaron Beacom

    In this article, the authors explores the challenges and limitations of conducting cross-comparative management/policy research in the Paralympic sporting domain. The comparative sport policy debate in able-bodied sport has emerged, in part, due to the increasing complexity, uncertainty, and competitive nature of high performance sport environments and a desire to understand why some countries are more successful than others at international sporting competition. The same issues and questions have also emerged within the Paralympic context. As a precursor to establishing a research agenda in this area, however, it was deemed important to begin to address the epistemological, methodological, and practical issues in comparative sport research. The analysis draws upon the broader sociological literature and examples from the Paralympic sporting context to identify and discuss the challenges and limitations of the comparative approach as well as recommendations for mitigating against them.





  • Long-term impact of the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games on sport participation: A cohort analysis
    24 novembre 2017
    Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Kurumi Aizawa, Ji Wu, Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato

    The sport participation rate has been shown to decrease with age in many countries. In Japan, however, the elderly sport participation rate has increased over the last decade and is the highest among all Japanese. This study investigated whether the cohort effect generated by the shared experience of hosting the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games during their youth can explain the increased sport participation of elderly Japanese. Data from the Japanese National Sport-Life Survey over 20 years were analyzed through regression analysis. The results show that, after controlling for demographics and other determinants of sport participation, individuals who experienced the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games participated in sport more frequently than other generations.





Mis à jour le 13 mars 2013