Management

ScienceDirect Management & Sport :

  • Heterogeneity of sport event volunteer motivations: A segmentation approach
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: October 2018
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 68

    Author(s): Eunjung Kim, Liz Fredline, Graham Cuskelly

    This study identifies specific sport event volunteer motivations, and then segments sport event volunteers based on their motivations. It investigates the distinct features of four motivational clusters in terms of their socio-demographics, their volunteering-related experiences, and the type of sport event at which they volunteered. The data comprises a sample of 337 volunteers from three sport events in Queensland. The Volunteer Motivation Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) questionnaire is used and data are analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis on standardized variables. Chi-square tests are then undertaken to explore relationships with other variables. The results indicate that motivations differ among the four main groups identified. Event organizers will be able to use this understanding of differing motivations to develop more effective volunteer management strategies.





  • An exploratory study of how destination marketing organizations pursue the sports tourism market
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: September 2018
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Volume 9

    Author(s): Richard W. Pouder, J. Dana Clark, George G. Fenich

    In recent years, destination marketing organizations (DMOs) have taken advantage of the opportunities that sports tourism offers their communities. Although researchers acknowledge the important role played by DMOs in pursuing the sports tourism market, little is known about how they actually do so. This study is an exploratory attempt to identify specifically what actions DMOs have taken to seize these emerging opportunities. Using a five-step analytic approach in interviews with DMO officials, four groups of dominant themes that DMOs considered in their pursuit of the sports market were identified. Each of these themes is discussed and their implications for practice and future research are considered.





  • Social signaling and interorganizational relationships: Lessons learned from the professional sports industry
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: July–August 2018
    Source:Business Horizons, Volume 61, Issue 4

    Author(s): Richard A. Posthuma, Gabriela L. Flores, Matthew A. Barlow, James B. Dworkin

    In today’s connected economy, interorganizational relationships are increasingly important. Whether government-to-government, political party-to-political party, business-to-business, department-to-department, or some other interorganizational pairing, these relationships can provide organizations with signals used to identify and better respond to changes in their environment and in their interorganizational relationships. This enables astute organizations to not only understand how others will interpret the social signals they send, but also to shape those signals in ways that will improve their interorganizational relationships. We illustrate this herein, using the public and readily recognizable relationships involved with labor relations in the professional sports industry. We show how social signals can explain the way organizations change and adapt to their environments, and how these changes send messages to related organizations. Finally, we provide a set of recommended advice for managers based on this case analysis.





  • Sport as medicine: How F3 is building healthier men and communities
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Stacy Warner

    Given sport has been largely absent from U.S. public health policies and discourse, the author suggests ways that sport can be better managed to promote health. Using a critical perspective and grounded theory approach, the author examined the experiences of 14 men in the grassroots recreational program, F3. Data were collected through observation and semi-structured interviews. Based on the results, a conceptual model that suggests how sport should be managed to address illnesses related to physical inactivity is put forth. The resulting Sport as Medicine model indicates that Creating a Team Structure, Providing a Place to Be Accountable, and Ensuring No One is Left Out, led to meaningful Health Outcomes, including Physical Health, Mental Toughness, and Social Connections. As the distinctiveness of sport continues to emerge, the author provides a framework to consider how sport can be part of public health efforts to address physical inactivity. Thus, this work positions sport as medicine by pinpointing how sport can be managed so that holistic health outcomes are more likely achieved.





  • Shared leadership in sport for development and peace: A conceptual framework of antecedents and outcomes
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Seungmin Kang, Per G. Svensson

    A broad range of organizations are involved in the field of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). The complex environmental factors and internal capacity challenges surrounding SDP organizations put additional pressures on SDP managers who are required to balance multiple organizational demands to achieve sustainable program outcomes. Although scholars have begun to explore managerial aspects of SDP efforts, literature on the nature of leadership in SDP remains scarce. In this article, therefore, the authors introduce the concept of shared leadership and arguments for why considering leadership as a collective phenomenon is of particular value in SDP. Specifically, a conceptual framework is developed to identify antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership in SDP. Nine propositions are presented along with a discussion of future areas of study regarding shared leadership in efforts to use sport as a means for achieving development and peace-building outcomes. Limitations of this leadership perspective are also outlined.





  • Determinants of the spending of sporting tourists: The case of attendees at professional basketball
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018
    Source:European Research on Management and Business Economics

    Author(s): Jesyca Salgado-Barandela, Ángel Barajas, Patricio Sánchez-Fernández

    This article analyses the determinants of attendees’ tourism spending at professional basketball matches during the 2012/2013 season. For this purpose, it applies a linear quantile regression and considers the effect of specific sports event variables which have rarely been assessed in this type of study. Empirical results confirm that the determinants of expenditure have a different influence depending on the spending level. Individual spending is principally influenced by the origin of the attendees as well as by several other sports factors such as the time the match takes place, the admission price, or the sporting level of the rival team. The study establishes two levels of spending to identify the different behaviors that correspond to each of the factors under study. The findings could provide a useful input into tourism strategies related to the hosting of sport events.





  • A model for the generation of public sphere-like activity in sport-themed Twitter hashtags
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Brendan O’Hallarn, Stephen L. Shapiro, D.E. Wittkower, Lynn Ridinger, Marion E. Hambrick

    The social media site Twitter has been subject to significant recent criticism, because of some users’ propensity for behaviors such as bullying, racism and homophobia, and rhetorical excess. Critics suggest Twitter has changed from its beginnings, where it was seen as a site that promoted broad-based debate and advancement of democracy. In this conceptual paper, the authors suggest that those ideals can still be realized, and that Twitter can provide the venue and the motivation for the generation of Habermasian public spheres. The authors argue that society’s passion and consumption model for sport, along with technological affordances unique to Twitter, can promote behavior akin to public spheres, provided barriers to such discourse can be overcome. This analysis is the first systematic examination of the potential for public spheres to be realized within sport and social media and suggests the byproducts of such discussions can be tangible and measurable.





  • Emotional intelligence, servant leadership, and development goal orientation in athletic directors
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Ye Hoon Lee

    Scholars and policy makers have long considered sport as a vehicle for promoting young athletes’ well-being, educational experience, and citizenship skills. Athletic directors can play a significant role in this process by establishing organizational goals that can foster the development of young athletes and also by ensuring that other personnel abide by these goals. However, little is known about methods athletic directors can use to focus on such development goals in the midst of the current winning-at-all-costs culture surrounding sports. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between emotional intelligence, servant leadership, and development goal orientation among high school athletic directors. A total of 445 athletic directors located in 48 states in the United States completed an online survey. The results indicated that emotional intelligence is positively associated with servant leadership, which in turn is positively associated with development goal orientation. The mediation analysis also revealed that servant leadership fully mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and development goal orientation among athletic directors. The findings of this research assist in understanding how sports governing bodies can educate athletic directors to initiate development-oriented reform of the winning-at-all-costs culture in sports.





  • The evolving institutional work of the National Collegiate Athletic Association to maintain dominance in a fragmented field
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Nite Calvin, Ige Abiodun, Washington Marvin

    High-profile sport governance associations tend to remain intact despite numerous issues that would predict their demise. As such, these types of associations offer valuable contexts for understanding institutional maintenance work. The authors conducted a historical case study of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the U.S. More than 7000 pages of documents spanning more than 100 years were analyzed to document how the NCAA rose to dominance in a contested field and cemented its governance as the taken-for-granted model of collegiate and amateur sport in the U.S. despite numerous issues that would predict the association’s demise. Findings suggest that the NCAA evolved its methods for controlling institutional boundaries, practices, and cognitions as means for maintaining its dominance. By expanding its boundaries, adjusting its practices, and framing member and public cognitions, the NCAA has been able to create an institution that is responsive to members and defensible against legitimate contestations.





  • From passion to obsession: Development and validation of a scale to measure compulsive sport consumption
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 87

    Author(s): Kirk Damon Aiken, Colleen Bee, Nefertiti Walker

    Sport consumption involves complex psychological processes – facilitating emotional highs and lows that reinforce and perpetuate habitual behaviors. The current work contextually broadens the scope of compulsive consumption research by developing and validating a scale to measure compulsive sport consumption (CSC). Three studies seek to: (1) qualitatively explore CSC and probe foundational issues; (2) begin the process of scale development through item generation, purification, and validation; (3) classify compulsive sport consumers, and examine the consequences of CSC. The resulting unidimensional scale assesses the habitual and obsessive consumption of sport wherein the pattern of behavior is associated with a sense of limited control. Results shed light on the unexpected prominence of CSC and expose several interesting psychological and behavioral relationships. Implications for the recognition and study of CSC revolve around consumer well-being and the modern marketing of sport.





  • Impacts and implications of an annual major sport event: A host community perspective
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Volume 8

    Author(s): Qin Yao, Eric C. Schwarz

    This study explores the impacts of the World Golf Championships HSBC Champions tournament in Shanghai, China, as perceived by host community residents over the past 10 years, and how those perceptions affected their attitudes towards the future hosting of this event. An empirical study was carried out and data collected from 1047 Shanghai residents using structured questionnaires. Multiple factor analysis identified six factors underlying the perceived impacts of the event. It was found that after over a decade of continuous staging, the WGC-HSBC Champions did not affect the life of most local residents due to their low awareness of the event. Despite that, the study also found that residents’ positive perceptions led to their support for the future hosting of the event, which confirms the usefulness of social exchange theory in explaining residents’ perceptions. Finally, implications for destination managers are discussed to ensure the needs of both visitors and residents are addressed.





  • Recruitment of volunteers connected with sports mega-events: A case study of the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Volume 8

    Author(s): Young-Joo Ahn

    Volunteers play an important role in the successful hosting of sports mega-events. Volunteers help reduce operational costs of sports mega-events by reducing labor compensation. Volunteers offer skills and effort without rewards, but recruiting qualified volunteers for sports mega-events without incentive and reward is challenging. The present study adopts volunteer motivation and human resource management approaches. The psychological connection of volunteers with their task provides useful insights into their interests and their connection with volunteer work. This study empirically tests the relationships among volunteer motivation, recognition and rewards, connectedness, and intention to volunteer in the context of the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympic Games. A total of 232 surveys were administered to individuals. Empirical research suggests that leisure motivation is the most influential factor that affects the connectedness of volunteers followed by purposive motivation and egoistic motivation. External influences did not significantly affect connectedness. Among the factors of recognition and rewards, economic recognition and rewards positively influenced connectedness. Psychological and managerial recognition and rewards did not show a significant effect on connectedness. Empirical research also found that connectedness positively influenced intention to volunteer. This study empirically demonstrates that participation in volunteer work not only enhances the internal motivations of volunteers, but also strengthens the organizational supports offered by Olympic committees. This study extends this area of research on volunteer motivation to recognition and rewards in sports organizations, which is related to connectedness and behavioral intention of individuals. This present study provides several theoretical and practical implications.





  • “The court is now in session…”: Use of mock trial in sport management
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Leeann M. Lower, Daniel W. Jones, Taylor A. Hutton, Whitney N. Jarnagin

    Mock trial is an active, collaborative exercise, grounded in experiential learning, that simulates a court session in which students engage in role-play to achieve intended learning outcomes. Within the United States, the mock trial has been adopted and tested in a variety of academic disciplines due to its transferable objectives and valuable outcomes, yet little is known about the implementation and effectiveness of mock trials in sport management curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to describe my implementation of mock trial in a graduate Sport Law course, discuss evaluative feedback and reflection on the mock trial exercise, and present implications for future practice. While the mock trial was found to enhance critical skills, broaden legal knowledge, and prepare students for a future career in sport, several challenges were identified. The paper concludes with five strategies I intend to implement in future mock trials – bolster student training, review strategies for success, increase time allotted, enhance authenticity, and expand debriefing.





  • Sport business and marketing collaboration in higher education
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Nathan Kirkpatrick, Joseph Pederson, Darin White

    In the spring of 2014, steps were taken at a southeastern university to overhaul an existing Sport Administration curriculum that functioned more as a general physical education and sport program instead of a sport business and leadership program. An almost entirely new major was created, curriculum was designed, and the program was approved by a southeastern university's curriculum committee in May of 2014. Since then, the new Sport Administration major has undergone revisions to continue to enhance the sport business and leadership focus, but also the program has partnered the last two years with the School of Business and Journalism and Mass Communication Department to form sport business, marketing and media partnerships. These unique academic collaborations have allowed for incredible student experiences, shared curriculum, common guest speakers, and increased campus “buy-in” related to sport business initiatives and emphases.





  • For a better campus sporting experience: Scale development and validation of the collegiate sportscape scale
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Sunyun Shin, Weisheng Chiu, Hyun-Woo Lee

    A collegiate sportscape scale is developed to measure the elements contributing to students’ sport-related experiences on campus. The results revealed a 14-item scale. Specifically, the collegiate sportscape scale consists of four factors: sport and physical education classes (4 items), sport facilities (4 items), varsity teams (3 items), and intramural sports (3 items). The scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure to assess students’ sport-related experience on campus. Furthermore, collegiate sportscape positively influenced students’ loyalty toward the university both directly and indirectly through satisfaction. This scale can be useful for administrators to better understand students’ experience on campus.





  • From classroom to courtside: An examination of the experiential learning practices of sport management faculty
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Liz A. Sattler

    The Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA) has identified experiential learning as an integral element to be included in sport management curriculum. However, often the experiential learning opportunities offered by sport management programs have been limited to a required internship experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the widespread application of experiential learning practices of sport management faculty. A survey instrument using Foster and Dollar's (2010) Five-Step Experiential Learning Process Model was sent to all subscribers to the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) List-serv. Results showed the majority of sport management faculty are utilizing some form of experiential learning technique. While usage rates were high for classroom-based experiential learning and internship, usage rates were considerably lower for volunteer exploration, practicum elective, and apprenticeship.

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  • Sport management internships: Recommendations for improving upon experiential learning
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Chris Brown, Jennifer Willett, Ruth Goldfine, Bernie Goldfine

    An internship is a major component of many sport management programs and appears to provide a competitive edge to students seeking employment in the field of sport management. This paper applies Dewey's experiential learning theory to a discussion of how this approach to learning can be incorporated in a sport management internship program. Furthermore, this paper delineates key stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities, makes recommendations to help improve the internship process, and can serve as a blueprint for developing and administering guided-learning experiences (e.g., internships) for sport management professionals.





  • Leadership in governance: Exploring collective board leadership in sport governance systems
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Lesley Ferkins, David Shilbury, Ian O’Boyle

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore a working conceptualisation of collective board leadership in a federal sport network. In this paper, the authors examine the relationship between collective leadership and governance systems specifically within the non-profit sport organisation context, bringing together notions of collective board leadership and collaborative governance. Neither concept has yet been presented in tandem for the benefit of developing sport governance knowledge and practice. As an outcome of the conceptualising, the authors make explicit the multiple levels of the sport governance system and pose two broad research directions that will help advance theory and drive a better understanding of collective board leadership within these types of governance systems. A central premise of this paper is that the sport management field is lacking literature that brings together leadership and governance, and that collective leadership is a topic where the intersection of leadership and governance renders advancement for both bodies of work. The authors offer implications for future work in collective leadership for sport governance.





  • Political activity in escalation of commitment: Sport facility funding and government decision making in the United States
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Michael Hutchinson, Brennan K. Berg, Timothy B. Kellison

    In the United States, the decision to commit extensive public resources to sport facilities is a contentious topic of debate. Elected officials often commit substantial public resources to sport facility projects amidst contrary empirical evidence and mixed residential approval. This behavior not only implicates the presence of political activity to advance a course of action, but also suggests an escalation of commitment (EoC), the subject of this study. The authors implemented a collective case study approach to examine three municipalities with long-standing histories of subsidizing professional sport facilities. Data collected from influential elected officials and public leaders (N =13) as well as documents and records revealed (a) political action to be essential in EoC with decisions involving multiple stakeholder groups; (b) the influence and interaction of political action within each EoC determinant; (c) the substantial role of support, resources, power, and influence in efforts to increase and prevent commitment to a failing course of action; and (d) noticeable spillover effects from use of political activity in EoC.





  • Leveraging community sport organizations to promote community capacity: Strategic outcomes, challenges, and theoretical considerations
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Gareth J. Jones, Michael B. Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds, Jordan W. Smith

    Community sport organizations (CSOs) provide valuable contexts for promoting community development. These initiatives are most effective when they involve local stakeholders in the process of development. A key first step to achieving this objective is building community capacity, defined as local stakeholders’ skills, knowledge, and resources that may be leveraged for change. Interestingly, despite this conceptual importance, few researchers have focused on capacity building in the sport context. This has limited the theoretical advancement of community capacity theory as it relates to CSOs and community development. Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors analyze the outcomes and challenges of implementing community capacity building strategies in an American CSO, and draw on the empirical data to contribute to this theoretical conversation. Interviews, participant observation, and document analysis were used to generate data, and deductive techniques were used for thematic analysis. The results highlight the outcomes of the capacity building strategies and challenges associated with implementation. In addition, the conclusion focuses on theoretical contributions to community capacity theory, namely the role of sport in facilitating inter-community relations across social groups and the link with process models of organizational capacity.





  • Examining the antecedents of sport team brand equity: A dual-identification perspective
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Michael Chih-Hung Wang, Ya-Yun Tang

    Although the practice of building brand equity in the context of professional sport teams is popular, the formation of sport team brand equity in the sport marketing literature is still relatively unknown and incompletely understood. In this study, the authors propose a dual-identification model to examine the formation of sport team brand equity in an Asia-based professional team sport setting. Baseball fans (N =548) of the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) in Taiwan participated in the self-administered survey. A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model analysis revealed that marketplace characteristics (including group experience, salient experience, team history, and fan rituals) and brand-identified-related factors (including self-congruity and team brand prestige) were significantly related to identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand, respectively. In turn, both identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand were significant predictors of sport team brand equity. These findings highlight the importance of studying a dual-identification model in order to understand how sport team brand equity forms and suggest implications for sport team managers.





  • The impact of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement in sports clubs: A multi-level analysis
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Philipp Swierzy, Pamela Wicker, Christoph Breuer

    As volunteerism occurs in an organizational context, both individual factors and organizational characteristics affect (potential) volunteers in sports clubs. Whereas a number of researchers have studied individual-level determinants, knowledge on the role of organizational-level factors is limited. Based on the concept of organizational capacity, in the present study, the authors investigate whether and how human resources, financial, and structural capacities of sports clubs influence individual voluntary engagement. Using data from German football and track and field clubs (n =296) and their members (n =1222), the effects of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement within two subsamples, adult members and parents of underage members, are examined. The results of multi-level mixed effects regression analyses show that all capacity dimensions are significantly associated with voluntary engagement of both adult members and parents of underage members. A larger number of members and a greater share of volunteers reduce the amount of time a volunteer devotes to voluntary work; adult members are less likely to volunteer when their club has a balanced budget; and strategic planning increases the likelihood of individuals to volunteer informally. Overall, the results support the notion that the organizational context is more relevant to volunteering of adult members than individual characteristics and equally relevant to parents of underage members. Managerial implications to facilitate volunteering, such as shifting club goals towards youth development and sports for all provision, are discussed.





  • Accumulating subcultural capital through sport event participation: The AFL International Cup
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Sheranne Fairley, Danny O’Brien

    In this study, the authors use participant interviews to examine how participating in an international event enabled the accumulation of subcultural capital. The authors conducted interviews with players (N =9) in the Australian Football League (AFL) International Cup from Canada, USA, New Zealand, and Ireland. The AFL International Cup created a liminal state offering individuals with opportunities for: (a) national representation; (b) international competition and comparison; (c) cross-cultural learning and interaction; (d) sport subcultural engagement; and, (d) authentic game experiences. The resulting experience enabled participants a deeper connection with the sport subculture, which created the potential for sport advocacy in their home countries. Results will assist international sport event hosts in creating meaningful participant experiences that facilitate deeper personal attachments to the sporting subculture.





  • Community-oriented practice: Examining corporate social responsibility and development activities in professional sport
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Katie Rowe, Adam Karg, Emma Sherry

    Professional sport teams are increasingly engaging in activities that target community development agendas. Previous researchers have examined why teams engage in such activities and the value they derive from a corporate social responsibility (CSR) perspective; however, an understanding of the nature and focus of such activities is only beginning to emerge and further research attention is necessary. To address this gap, the authors draw on both CSR and sport-for-development (SFD) literature to examine community activities undertaken by professional sport teams. An exploratory case study methodology was employed, using a multi-case design to examine the activities of 70 professional sport teams across the commercially dominant league in each of three regions (Australia, the UK, and the US). A total of 1243 initiatives were recorded and analysed to build a profile of the nature and focus of the community activities undertaken. These were classified into 14 specific categories and analysis identified three core groups of activities: giving, activating and capacity building. Teams primarily targeted health and education agendas; however, differences were observed across regions. Teams in the US engaged more heavily in giving activities, whereas teams in the UK more commonly engaged in capacity-building activities. Variations were also observed with respect to target agenda, demonstrating differences within practices across regions. The authors propose community-oriented practices as a concept to describe the community-focused activities undertaken by professional sport teams at the intersection of CSR and SFD, and a working definition of this concept is offered.





  • Indigenous Australian women promoting health through sport
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Megan Stronach, Hazel Maxwell, Sonya Pearce

    The authors explore the sporting experiences and community strengths of Indigenous Australian women. The intention is to inform both health promotion and contemporary sport management strategies, and policies and practices, leading to better health outcomes for this cohort. The authors employ an interpretative qualitative methodology, which involves the combination of data from a range of sources, including interviews and focus groups with 22 Indigenous women living in urban and rural areas, narratives from elite Indigenous athletes and coaches, as well as findings from a recent Australian Parliamentary inquiry into Indigenous health and wellbeing. Drawing from an agency/empowerment theoretical framework, the authors posit that, given support and opportunities, Indigenous women can become empowered to improve their mental and physical health through participation in sport. Sport managers can facilitate Indigenous women's agency in the effects of colonisation, which continues to be the basis of health issues for this cohort. Listening to Indigenous women and facilitating opportunities for them to take control of their own participation can help facilitate this process. Indigenous-women's only opportunities, partnerships with health agencies and sports organisations, culturally safe spaces and Indigenous women acting as role models are some factors that may augment Indigenous women's agency, and thus empowerment. Government, sports, community organisations and health agencies which provide these conditions in their program design can help to overcome entrenched social, historical and health inequalities that Indigenous women may experience.





  • Paired comparison models with age effects modeled as piecewise quadratic splines
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
    Source:International Journal of Forecasting

    Author(s): Kenji Araki, Yoshihiro Hirose, Fumiyasu Komaki

    We propose new models for analyzing pairwise comparison data, such as that relating to sports. We focus on changes in players’ strengths and the prediction of future results. Our models are based on the Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley–Terry models, and make use of the time variation in the parameters. Furthermore, we apply our models to data from the Japanese traditional sport sumo, and analyze this data. The proposed models perform better than the standard Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley–Terry models according to both the Akaike information criterion and the Brier score. We compare the proposed models in detail by focusing on individual sumo wrestlers.





  • Spectators’ emotional responses in tweets during the Super Bowl 50 game
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Yonghwan Chang

    The author explored spectators’ emotional reactions manifested on social media. By using Twitter search application programming interface, 328,000 real-time tweets posted by fans of the Panthers and the Broncos during the Super Bowl 50 game were collected. The lexicon-based text mining approach (a big data analysis in social media analytics) was employed to classify tweets into five different emotions. The findings indicated that spectators expressed positive emotions when their team scored; conversely, they expressed negative emotions when the opposite team scored. Interestingly, spectators became habituated with each subsequent score from either of their preferred teams, which resulted in fewer expressions of emotions. However, when a team scored soon after the opposite team scored, fans expressed a surge of positive or negative emotions, accordingly. The results supported both the theories of affective disposition and opponent-process. Spectators’ simultaneous experience of positive and negative emotions may contribute to fans’ satisfaction, continued patronage, and mental health.





  • Did London 2012 deliver a sports participation legacy?
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Themis Kokolakakis, Fernando Lera-López, Girish Ramchandani

    Despite the increasing academic interest in the analysis of the Olympic legacy, there is a relative knowledge gap as far as sports participation legacy is concerned. The authors bridge this gap by analysing the short-term sports participation legacy of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on the adult population in England. By using data from the Active People Survey and considering different sports participation variables and the effect of the economic climate, results demonstrate a positive association with participation from hosting the Games. Participation rates were adjusted to take into account seasonality and changes in the gross domestic product (GDP), accounting in this way for the effect of the recent economic recession. The biggest effect was observed in relation to frequent participation (at least three times per week for at least 30 min) in the year immediately after the Games. In 2014, the sports participation rates fell relative to 2013 but remained higher than pre-Olympic levels. The sport participation legacy of the Olympic Games appeared to have significant differences between socio-demographic groups.





  • Host residents’ role in sporting events: The city image perspective
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Daichi Oshimi, Munehiko Harada

    The purpose of this study was to identify the antecedent and outcome variables of host city image perceptions, and to analyze how these perceptions impact behavioral intentions from the residents’ viewpoint. To this end, the authors constructed a structural model, distributed questionnaires to residents in Saitama City for the Tour de France Saitama Criterium held in Japan from 2014 to 2016, and collected 636 usable responses. The results verified that the fit between host city and sporting event is a useful antecedent variable of city image. Furthermore, place attachment to host city was identified as an outcome variable. Development of these two variables could benefit behavioral intentions, suggesting that residents play an important role in sporting event development. In addition, the authors found that hosting a sporting event leads to place attachment among residents through fit between host city and sporting event and city image perceptions. Thus, hosting a sporting event has two potential impacts—one each on the event organizer and the host city—from the residents’ viewpoint. It benefits the organizers by developing the residents’ behavioral intentions and has a social impact on the host city through an enhancement in their place attachment.





  • The antecedents and consequences of positive organizational behavior: The role of psychological capital for promoting employee well-being in sport organizations
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Minjung Kim, Amy Chan Hyung Kim, Joshua I. Newman, Gerald R. Ferris, Pamela L. Perrewé

    A positive approach to addressing mental health issues in workplaces advocates the examination of an untapped resource—psychological capital—as a potential positive construct in contemporary organizational behavior. The authors tested various antecedents and outcomes of psychological capital, and examined the role of this construct in psychological well-being and job satisfaction among sport employees. To test 11 hypotheses, the researchers recruited 708 employees from the athletic departments of Division I institutions. Results indicate that the meaningful work of employees and a supportive organizational climate positively influenced psychological capital, thereby leading to high levels of job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Psychological capital also functioned either as a partial mediator or as a full mediator. In this study, the authors offer a new perspective on sport employees’ mental health outcomes, with particular emphasis on positive organizational behavior in sport settings.





  • Sporting hyperchallenges: Health, social, and fiscal implications
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Matthew Lamont, Millicent Kennelly

    There has been a rise in sport-focused event management organisations staging increasingly challenging quests for amateur athletes. Whilst endeavours such as running a marathon or completing an Ironman triathlon were previously pinnacle achievements for amateur athletes, sporting hyperchallenges, events covering greater distances, crossing more difficult terrain, or posing more extreme challenges have set the performance bar significantly higher. Cast against Western neoliberal backdrops the ever-expanding supply-side of this market is broadening opportunities for amateur athletes to test their physical limits, thus necessitating investment of inordinate personal resources. Simultaneously, there is growing empirical and anecdotal evidence suggesting unfavourable impacts can flow from intensely pursuing extreme endurance sports including impacts to athletes’ health and relationships. The authors draw upon intertwined theories of business ethics and corporate social responsibility to critique business practices of sport-focused event management organisations delivering sporting hyperchallenges. The authors propose a conceptual framework aimed at encouraging future research into potential health, social, and fiscal implications stemming from this complex, unregulated market.





  • Is it worth the price? The role of perceived financial risk, identification, and perceived value in purchasing pay-per-view broadcasts of combat sports
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Stephen L. Shapiro, Lamar Reams, Kevin Kam Fung So

    Perceived risk, identification, and perceived value play a critical role in consumer behavior. Although previous researchers have examined identification and perceived value, examination of mediated sport consumption is lacking. Additionally, risk has received limited attention within this context. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between identification, perceived value, and purchase intentions, and to assess the moderating role of perceived financial risk within the context of combat sports pay-per-view purchases. Combat sport consumers (N = 364) participated in an online survey. Findings showed that identification had a positive association with perceived value and purchase intentions. Perceived value was directly associated with purchase intentions and partially mediated the relationship between identification and purchase intentions. However, perceived financial risk did not moderate the value-intentions relationship. These findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior by (a) extending the understanding of identification, value, and purchase intentions in a mediated consumption environment, and (b) advancing knowledge on the role of financial risk in this setting. As advances in technology continue, it is important to understand the role of attitudes and behavior, and the potential impact of perceived risk on purchases of mediated sport programming.





  • How does a component from a supplier with high reputation for product innovation improve the perception of a final offering? A process perspective
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:European Management Journal, Volume 36, Issue 2

    Author(s): Christian Linder, Sven Seidenstricker

    An excellent reputation for product innovation (RPI) is an intangible asset for any company and promises a sustainable competitive advantage. This study empirically analyzes the spillover effects of a high component supplier's RPI to the offering of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The results show that there are positive effects to be gained from the innovativeness of a component supplier, which increases the perceived performance of the final offering containing the supplier's product. In addition, the study demonstrates that such a strategic partnership between a component supplier and an OEM has the potential to influence the purchase intention of the final consumer in a positive manner, thereby creating value for both parties. Contributions are made to a better understanding of strategic options for such a partnership and to an on-going discussion on RPI and the importance of intangible attributes in innovation management.





  • Living with imperfect comparisons: The challenges and limitations of comparative paralympic sport policy research
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Mathew Dowling, Phil Brown, David Legg, Aaron Beacom

    In this article, the authors explores the challenges and limitations of conducting cross-comparative management/policy research in the Paralympic sporting domain. The comparative sport policy debate in able-bodied sport has emerged, in part, due to the increasing complexity, uncertainty, and competitive nature of high performance sport environments and a desire to understand why some countries are more successful than others at international sporting competition. The same issues and questions have also emerged within the Paralympic context. As a precursor to establishing a research agenda in this area, however, it was deemed important to begin to address the epistemological, methodological, and practical issues in comparative sport research. The analysis draws upon the broader sociological literature and examples from the Paralympic sporting context to identify and discuss the challenges and limitations of the comparative approach as well as recommendations for mitigating against them.





  • Sport team personality: It’s not all about winning!
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Ashley Stadler Blank, Joerg Koenigstorfer, Hans Baumgartner

    As there is still no commonly accepted scale to measure the brand personality of sport teams, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Sport Team Personality Scale (STPS) in a professional sport context. The authors conducted a series of studies in the United States and United Kingdom with fans of the English Premier League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Football League, and the National Hockey League. The STPS contains 18 items that load onto six factors: success, talent, entertainment, dedication, admiration, and care. The authors compared this new scale with existing sport team personality scales and used it to explore team identification and perceptual similarities and differences among teams. Results indicate that teams map along performance (i.e., success and talent) and character (i.e., admiration and care) factors and that the character factor is a more important source of team identification than the performance factor. Taken together, these results illustrate how the STPS can help sport managers position and differentiate teams within a league to improve marketing outcomes.





  • Developmental processes and motivations for linkages in cross-sectoral sport clusters
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Anna Gerke, Kathy Babiak, Geoff Dickson, Michel Desbordes

    Interorganisational linkages are a widely studied topic in sport management. However, most researchers focus on public or non-profit organisations and analyse one focal organisation rather than a network of interrelated organisations. The purpose of this study was to address both of these shortcomings by investigating interorganisational linkages in sport clusters, a type of cross-sectoral network. The authors address three main questions: (a) what is the nature of interorganisational linkages in sport clusters; (b) how do linkages in sport clusters develop; and (c) what are the organisational motivations for creating or joining linkages in sport clusters? A multiple case study approach explores two sailing clusters in France and New Zealand. Results show that interorganisational relationships tend to be formalised, while interorganisational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process from formal relationships to formal networks via informal relationships and networks was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of interorganisational linkages. This research contributes to sport management practice by showcasing the potential multitude and variety of interorganisational linkages in a cross-sectoral sport context which are foundations for cooperation and collaboration. The theoretical contribution lies in the conceptualising of the IOR development process and different motivational patterns as antecedents.





  • Sports fan experience: Electronic word-of-mouth in ephemeral social media
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Lane T. Wakefield, Gregg Bennett

    Fans consuming sporting events commonly use social media to spread electronic-word-of-mouth (eWOM) related to their experiences. Ephemeral social media, an emerging form of social media that auto-deletes content after a prescribed time, allows fans to have greater control over their messages than ever before. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate factors leading fans to lengthen or shorten the lifespan of their social media content. A nationwide panel (N =242) created social media content in a controlled setting in which the fan experience and audience size were manipulated. Results suggest fans having a positive experience or who were broadcasting to a large audience were likely to share their content for a longer period of time. In contrast, fans having other than positive experiences, sharing with a small audience, or displaying greater team identification wished to limit the availability of their content. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.





  • Challenges and strategies of building and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships in sport for development and peace
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Jon Welty Peachey, Adam Cohen, Nari Shin, Bruno Fusaro

    While sport management scholars have explored inter-organizational partnerships and their associated challenges, they have devoted less attention to inter-organizational partnership development and sustainability in sport for development and peace (SDP), particularly across a wide range of organizations with varied missions and foci. Hence, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine challenges faced by SDP organizations when forming and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships across contexts and partnership types, and to uncover strategies they have employed to overcome these challenges. Common challenges encountered across 29 SDP organizations included competition for resources, skepticism of sport as a development tool, unequal power relations, misaligned goals and mission drift, and implementation issues. Strategies included focusing on building relationships and networks, demonstrating benefits to partner, starting small then diversifying, keeping focused on mission and goals, involving partner, and treating the partnership as a business relationship. Theoretical extensions and practical implications are discussed, along with directions for future research.





  • Explaining attendance through the brand community triad: Integrating network theory and team identification
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Matthew Katz, Rose Marie Ward, Bob Heere

    In this study, the authors empirically test a model of sport behaviour that integrates both team identification and a network theory approach to understand attendance at intercollegiate ice hockey games. Grounded within the brand community triad, ego network data were collected among attendees to measure the fan-to-fan connections that constitute the horizontal relationships of brand community participants. Additionally, a multidimensional team identification measure was used to illustrate the vertical relationship between individual and team. Both measures were included in a structural equation model to test how both fan-to-fan and fan-team relationships explain attendance. The results from the model support the salience of both dimensions of the brand community triad, suggesting that understanding sport fan behaviour necessitates including both psychological and structural elements of behaviour. Future suggestions for extending the study of sport fans through structural networks are discussed.





  • Social and charitable impacts of a charity-affiliated sport event: A mixed methods study
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Yuhei Inoue, Caroline Heffernan, Taku Yamaguchi, Kevin Filo

    In this mixed methods research, the authors examine a unique type of small-scale event – a charity-affiliated sport event – and define and measure its social and charitable impacts as perceived by residents. Findings from interviews (N =37) and surveys (N =459) with residents indicated that the event’s social impacts can be defined by its capacity to develop social capital, enhance collective identity and pride, and promote sport, health, and well-being. Three types of charitable impacts also emerged, including empathy for cause, informational support, and tangible support. Of them, empathy for cause, which addresses a central social issue in the host community, had the strongest association with residents’ perceptions of social impacts. These results provide evidence of a variety of positive impacts that a charity-affiliated sport event has on a community, which can be used to bolster appeals for corporate sponsorship and government support to assist in event delivery.





  • Estimating willingness to pay for a cycling event using a willingness to travel approach
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 65

    Author(s): John C. Whitehead, Pamela Wicker

    This study examines the monetary value of nonmarket benefits to participants of an active sport tourism event, such as happiness and pride from participating in an event. Willingness to travel (WTT) greater distances for future events is assessed and converted into willingness to pay (WTP) estimates using travel costs. Using survey data from the 2014 and 2015 Blood Sweat Gears bike ride, the intended visitation models show that changes in travel cost have a significant negative effect. WTP to revisit the event was between $41 and $57. The likelihood of return visit decreases as travel costs increase, indicating that WTP estimates are internally valid. WTP estimates stemming from two years of data collection are stable, suggesting that they are also temporally reliable. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stated preference WTT questions to assign a monetary value to nonmarket benefits of active sport tourists.





  • Sponsor-event congruence effects: The moderating role of sport involvement and mediating role of sponsor attitudes
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 18 March 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Jakeun Koo, Younghan Lee

    The authors examine the moderating effect of sport involvement in the association between sponsor-event congruence and consumer responses. University students (N = 118) took part in the experiment. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results show that sport involvement moderates the effectiveness of sponsor-event congruence on sponsor credibility, influencing attitude toward the sponsor and intention to purchase the sponsor’s product. Research findings imply that a sponsorship campaign, in which sponsor-event congruence occurs, may have the power to deliver a product relevant message to consumers who are involved in sports via a central route.





  • Team identification and sports fandom as predictors of fan aggression: The moderating role of ageing
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Anat Toder-Alon, Tamar Icekson, Avichai Shuv-Ami

    In the current study, the explored the moderating role of ageing in the relationship between team identification/fandom and fan aggression. The authors used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a realworld population of sports fans. Participants were 740 fans of Israeli professional basketball. Results from structural equation modelling demonstrated that older fans reported higher levels of mere sports fandom and lower levels of self-reported aggression and acceptance of aggression. Moreover, age moderated the relationships between team identification (or fandom) and self-reported aggression, such that team identification (or fandom) was more strongly associated with selfreported fan aggression among younger fans than among older fans. The moderating role of age in the relationships between team identification (or fandom) and perceptions of appropriateness of aggression was not supported. The findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of the role of ageing in the relationship between fan identification and fan aggression. Based on these findings, the authors assert that managers might particularly benefit from leveraging the potential, but often neglected, segment of senior fans, since older fans can play a key role in reducing the level of aggression during competitive sports events. Suggestions for future research are also discussed.





  • Bridging the gap between social media and behavioral brand loyalty
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: March–April 2018
    Source:Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 28

    Author(s): Masayuki Yoshida, Brian S. Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, Shigeki Shibuya, Naoyuki Fujiwara

    Integrating several streams of theoretical reasoning such as social identity theory and customer engagement theory, this study examines the relationship between consumer responses in social media networks and behavioral brand loyalty in the context of Japanese professional sports: football and baseball. Data were collected from 309 panel registrants of an online research panel service. Based on the analysis, user characteristics as an opinion seeker and the entertainment value of social media pages were found to positively influence online brand community identification which in turn had a positive effect on brand-related social media engagement. Further, brand-related social media engagement and team identification, a type of consumer-brand identification, simultaneously affected behavioral brand loyalty. The theoretical model and results reinforced the importance of brand-related social media engagement toward behavioral brand loyalty, and added new insights into the antecedents of consumer engagement in the brand-related use of social media.





  • Intramural sports' participation produce self-efficacy in hospitality leaders
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: March 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Volume 34

    Author(s): James A. Williams, Eric A. Brown, Miranda Kitterlin, Stefanie Benjamin

    This study explored sports' experiences of 11 hospitality leaders who played sports while completing a hospitality undergraduate degree. A multiple coder and triangulation approach was employed to highlight four major themes: confidence, communication, critical thinking, and collaboration. These themes were grouped together to form soft skills tailor-made for self-efficacy development. Sports (i.e., basketball, volleyball, and football) function as a staple for the development of soft skills (intangible skill sets or attributes). Sports furnish individuals with opportunities to perform in teams, to lead others, and to operate under pressure-filled situations. Results indicated that college sport's participation is an effectual way to grow future hospitality leaders pivotal soft skills for the 21st century workforce.





  • Coworker knowledge sharing and peer learning among elite footballers: Insights from German Bundesliga players
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Kim Werner, Geoff Dickson

    This research focuses on coworker learning and knowledge sharing amongst elite footballers. The authors provide an in-depth understanding on how elite footballers learn from their peers and which channels are used to share their knowledge. The authors also analyze how peer learning impacts an elite footballer’s development and performance and to what extent elite football clubs actively support peer learning. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 elite footballers from first and second division German Bundesliga clubs. The findings demonstrate that peers are very important sources of knowledge for elite footballers. There are four main knowledge sharing channels: observing/imitating, peer exchange/peer communication, labor mobility and knowledge brokers. The findings highlight the positive impact of knowledge sharing on elite players’ development and performance and call for future (knowledge) management tactics to specifically use this untapped potential.





  • Results of a utilization-focused evaluation of a Right To Play program for Indigenous youth
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 66

    Author(s): Alexandra Arellano, Tanya Halsall, Tanya Forneris, Cindy Gaudet

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Promoting Life Skills for Aboriginal Youth (PLAY) program that is operated by Right to Play (RTP). The focus of the program is to help youth develop a variety of life skills and become leaders within their communities. Piloted in 2010 with 2 communities, the program is now implemented in 88 communities in Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Alberta. This study applies a utilization-focused evaluation to examine staff perceptions related to program implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis was performed. Themes emerged related to: 1) Integrating program flexibility to help facilitate community ownership, 2) Building capacity through skills training for Community Mentors (CMs), 3) Having a motivated staff and organizational learning, 4) Balancing the integration of culture and 5) Challenges related to adapting to multiple stakeholders and program pace. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant literature and recommendations for program improvements are provided. We also describe program improvements that were made as a result of applying the findings. This research contributes to the expanding literature related to programming for youth and evaluation practice within Indigenous communities.





  • eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): George B. Cunningham, Sheranne Fairley, Lesley Ferkins, Shannon Kerwin, Daniel Lock, Sally Shaw, Pamela Wicker

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management scholarship and discourse. Such a position is consistent with the broad view of sport adopted by Sport Management Review, the perspective that eSport represents a form of sportification, and the association among eSport and various outcomes, including physical and psychological health, social well-being, sport consumption outcomes, and diversity and inclusion. Finally, the authors conclude that eSport scholarship can advance through the study of its governance, marketing, and management as well as by theorizing about eSport.





  • eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Daniel C. Funk, Anthony D. Pizzo, Bradley J. Baker

    Consumer demand for eSport and the growth of organized video game competitions has generated considerable attention from the sport, event, and entertainment industries. eSport therefore represents a novel and popular area for sport management academics to conduct research, educate students, and service industry. However, despite growth and acceptance by consumers and practitioners, academics debate eSport’s position within the domain of sport management, their debates largely concentrated around the question of whether eSport can be classified as sport. In this article, the authors argue for the inclusion of organized eSport events and competitions within sport management vis-à-vis eSport’s meeting certain defining criteria of sport in general. eSport’s connection to traditional sport and defining characteristics are addressed to support eSport’s role as a sport entertainment product recognized by industry as representing a substantial growth opportunity for sport and related organizations. As eSport continues to evolve, practitioners face managerial challenges that are similar to those in traditional sport, particularly in areas of governance and diversity. Sport management academics should embrace the potential of eSport in order to examine this evolution and provide guidance to industry through education and research.





  • Embracing the sportification of society: Defining e-sports through a polymorphic view on sport
    24 juin 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Bob Heere

    In this paper, the author argues that, regardless of whether e-sports qualify as sports, they should be examined in sport management because they are a manifestation of sportification. Sportification means to either: (a) view, organize, or regulate a non-sport activity in such a way that it resembles a sport and allows a fair, pleasurable, and safe environment for individuals to compete and cooperate, and compare their performances to each other, and future and past performances; or (b) add a sport component to an existing activity in order to make it more attractive to its audiences. As the sport industry itself is embracing e-sports as a sport, scholars should embrace e-sports as a manifestation of sportification and examine their negative and positive effect on our industry.





Mis à jour le 13 mars 2013