Management

ScienceDirect Management & Sport :

  • Heterogeneity of sport event volunteer motivations: A segmentation approach
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: October 2018
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 68

    Author(s): Eunjung Kim, Liz Fredline, Graham Cuskelly

    This study identifies specific sport event volunteer motivations, and then segments sport event volunteers based on their motivations. It investigates the distinct features of four motivational clusters in terms of their socio-demographics, their volunteering-related experiences, and the type of sport event at which they volunteered. The data comprises a sample of 337 volunteers from three sport events in Queensland. The Volunteer Motivation Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) questionnaire is used and data are analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis on standardized variables. Chi-square tests are then undertaken to explore relationships with other variables. The results indicate that motivations differ among the four main groups identified. Event organizers will be able to use this understanding of differing motivations to develop more effective volunteer management strategies.





  • From passion to obsession: Development and validation of a scale to measure compulsive sport consumption
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 87

    Author(s): Kirk Damon Aiken, Colleen Bee, Nefertiti Walker

    Sport consumption involves complex psychological processes – facilitating emotional highs and lows that reinforce and perpetuate habitual behaviors. The current work contextually broadens the scope of compulsive consumption research by developing and validating a scale to measure compulsive sport consumption (CSC). Three studies seek to: (1) qualitatively explore CSC and probe foundational issues; (2) begin the process of scale development through item generation, purification, and validation; (3) classify compulsive sport consumers, and examine the consequences of CSC. The resulting unidimensional scale assesses the habitual and obsessive consumption of sport wherein the pattern of behavior is associated with a sense of limited control. Results shed light on the unexpected prominence of CSC and expose several interesting psychological and behavioral relationships. Implications for the recognition and study of CSC revolve around consumer well-being and the modern marketing of sport.





  • “The court is now in session…”: Use of mock trial in sport management
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Leeann M. Lower, Daniel W. Jones, Taylor A. Hutton, Whitney N. Jarnagin

    Mock trial is an active, collaborative exercise, grounded in experiential learning, that simulates a court session in which students engage in role-play to achieve intended learning outcomes. Within the United States, the mock trial has been adopted and tested in a variety of academic disciplines due to its transferable objectives and valuable outcomes, yet little is known about the implementation and effectiveness of mock trials in sport management curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to describe my implementation of mock trial in a graduate Sport Law course, discuss evaluative feedback and reflection on the mock trial exercise, and present implications for future practice. While the mock trial was found to enhance critical skills, broaden legal knowledge, and prepare students for a future career in sport, several challenges were identified. The paper concludes with five strategies I intend to implement in future mock trials – bolster student training, review strategies for success, increase time allotted, enhance authenticity, and expand debriefing.





  • Sport business and marketing collaboration in higher education
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Nathan Kirkpatrick, Joseph Pederson, Darin White

    In the spring of 2014, steps were taken at a southeastern university to overhaul an existing Sport Administration curriculum that functioned more as a general physical education and sport program instead of a sport business and leadership program. An almost entirely new major was created, curriculum was designed, and the program was approved by a southeastern university's curriculum committee in May of 2014. Since then, the new Sport Administration major has undergone revisions to continue to enhance the sport business and leadership focus, but also the program has partnered the last two years with the School of Business and Journalism and Mass Communication Department to form sport business, marketing and media partnerships. These unique academic collaborations have allowed for incredible student experiences, shared curriculum, common guest speakers, and increased campus “buy-in” related to sport business initiatives and emphases.





  • For a better campus sporting experience: Scale development and validation of the collegiate sportscape scale
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Sunyun Shin, Weisheng Chiu, Hyun-Woo Lee

    A collegiate sportscape scale is developed to measure the elements contributing to students’ sport-related experiences on campus. The results revealed a 14-item scale. Specifically, the collegiate sportscape scale consists of four factors: sport and physical education classes (4 items), sport facilities (4 items), varsity teams (3 items), and intramural sports (3 items). The scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure to assess students’ sport-related experience on campus. Furthermore, collegiate sportscape positively influenced students’ loyalty toward the university both directly and indirectly through satisfaction. This scale can be useful for administrators to better understand students’ experience on campus.





  • From classroom to courtside: An examination of the experiential learning practices of sport management faculty
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Liz A. Sattler

    The Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA) has identified experiential learning as an integral element to be included in sport management curriculum. However, often the experiential learning opportunities offered by sport management programs have been limited to a required internship experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the widespread application of experiential learning practices of sport management faculty. A survey instrument using Foster and Dollar's (2010) Five-Step Experiential Learning Process Model was sent to all subscribers to the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) List-serv. Results showed the majority of sport management faculty are utilizing some form of experiential learning technique. While usage rates were high for classroom-based experiential learning and internship, usage rates were considerably lower for volunteer exploration, practicum elective, and apprenticeship.

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  • Sport management internships: Recommendations for improving upon experiential learning
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 22

    Author(s): Chris Brown, Jennifer Willett, Ruth Goldfine, Bernie Goldfine

    An internship is a major component of many sport management programs and appears to provide a competitive edge to students seeking employment in the field of sport management. This paper applies Dewey's experiential learning theory to a discussion of how this approach to learning can be incorporated in a sport management internship program. Furthermore, this paper delineates key stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities, makes recommendations to help improve the internship process, and can serve as a blueprint for developing and administering guided-learning experiences (e.g., internships) for sport management professionals.





  • Leadership in governance: Exploring collective board leadership in sport governance systems
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Lesley Ferkins, David Shilbury, Ian O’Boyle

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore a working conceptualisation of collective board leadership in a federal sport network. In this paper, the authors examine the relationship between collective leadership and governance systems specifically within the non-profit sport organisation context, bringing together notions of collective board leadership and collaborative governance. Neither concept has yet been presented in tandem for the benefit of developing sport governance knowledge and practice. As an outcome of the conceptualising, the authors make explicit the multiple levels of the sport governance system and pose two broad research directions that will help advance theory and drive a better understanding of collective board leadership within these types of governance systems. A central premise of this paper is that the sport management field is lacking literature that brings together leadership and governance, and that collective leadership is a topic where the intersection of leadership and governance renders advancement for both bodies of work. The authors offer implications for future work in collective leadership for sport governance.





  • Political activity in escalation of commitment: Sport facility funding and government decision making in the United States
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Michael Hutchinson, Brennan K. Berg, Timothy B. Kellison

    In the United States, the decision to commit extensive public resources to sport facilities is a contentious topic of debate. Elected officials often commit substantial public resources to sport facility projects amidst contrary empirical evidence and mixed residential approval. This behavior not only implicates the presence of political activity to advance a course of action, but also suggests an escalation of commitment (EoC), the subject of this study. The authors implemented a collective case study approach to examine three municipalities with long-standing histories of subsidizing professional sport facilities. Data collected from influential elected officials and public leaders (N =13) as well as documents and records revealed (a) political action to be essential in EoC with decisions involving multiple stakeholder groups; (b) the influence and interaction of political action within each EoC determinant; (c) the substantial role of support, resources, power, and influence in efforts to increase and prevent commitment to a failing course of action; and (d) noticeable spillover effects from use of political activity in EoC.





  • Leveraging community sport organizations to promote community capacity: Strategic outcomes, challenges, and theoretical considerations
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Gareth J. Jones, Michael B. Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds, Jordan W. Smith

    Community sport organizations (CSOs) provide valuable contexts for promoting community development. These initiatives are most effective when they involve local stakeholders in the process of development. A key first step to achieving this objective is building community capacity, defined as local stakeholders’ skills, knowledge, and resources that may be leveraged for change. Interestingly, despite this conceptual importance, few researchers have focused on capacity building in the sport context. This has limited the theoretical advancement of community capacity theory as it relates to CSOs and community development. Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors analyze the outcomes and challenges of implementing community capacity building strategies in an American CSO, and draw on the empirical data to contribute to this theoretical conversation. Interviews, participant observation, and document analysis were used to generate data, and deductive techniques were used for thematic analysis. The results highlight the outcomes of the capacity building strategies and challenges associated with implementation. In addition, the conclusion focuses on theoretical contributions to community capacity theory, namely the role of sport in facilitating inter-community relations across social groups and the link with process models of organizational capacity.





  • Examining the antecedents of sport team brand equity: A dual-identification perspective
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Michael Chih-Hung Wang, Ya-Yun Tang

    Although the practice of building brand equity in the context of professional sport teams is popular, the formation of sport team brand equity in the sport marketing literature is still relatively unknown and incompletely understood. In this study, the authors propose a dual-identification model to examine the formation of sport team brand equity in an Asia-based professional team sport setting. Baseball fans (N =548) of the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) in Taiwan participated in the self-administered survey. A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model analysis revealed that marketplace characteristics (including group experience, salient experience, team history, and fan rituals) and brand-identified-related factors (including self-congruity and team brand prestige) were significantly related to identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand, respectively. In turn, both identification with sport team and identification with sport team brand were significant predictors of sport team brand equity. These findings highlight the importance of studying a dual-identification model in order to understand how sport team brand equity forms and suggest implications for sport team managers.





  • The impact of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement in sports clubs: A multi-level analysis
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Philipp Swierzy, Pamela Wicker, Christoph Breuer

    As volunteerism occurs in an organizational context, both individual factors and organizational characteristics affect (potential) volunteers in sports clubs. Whereas a number of researchers have studied individual-level determinants, knowledge on the role of organizational-level factors is limited. Based on the concept of organizational capacity, in the present study, the authors investigate whether and how human resources, financial, and structural capacities of sports clubs influence individual voluntary engagement. Using data from German football and track and field clubs (n =296) and their members (n =1222), the effects of organizational capacity on voluntary engagement within two subsamples, adult members and parents of underage members, are examined. The results of multi-level mixed effects regression analyses show that all capacity dimensions are significantly associated with voluntary engagement of both adult members and parents of underage members. A larger number of members and a greater share of volunteers reduce the amount of time a volunteer devotes to voluntary work; adult members are less likely to volunteer when their club has a balanced budget; and strategic planning increases the likelihood of individuals to volunteer informally. Overall, the results support the notion that the organizational context is more relevant to volunteering of adult members than individual characteristics and equally relevant to parents of underage members. Managerial implications to facilitate volunteering, such as shifting club goals towards youth development and sports for all provision, are discussed.





  • Accumulating subcultural capital through sport event participation: The AFL International Cup
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: June 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 3

    Author(s): Sheranne Fairley, Danny O’Brien

    In this study, the authors use participant interviews to examine how participating in an international event enabled the accumulation of subcultural capital. The authors conducted interviews with players (N =9) in the Australian Football League (AFL) International Cup from Canada, USA, New Zealand, and Ireland. The AFL International Cup created a liminal state offering individuals with opportunities for: (a) national representation; (b) international competition and comparison; (c) cross-cultural learning and interaction; (d) sport subcultural engagement; and, (d) authentic game experiences. The resulting experience enabled participants a deeper connection with the sport subculture, which created the potential for sport advocacy in their home countries. Results will assist international sport event hosts in creating meaningful participant experiences that facilitate deeper personal attachments to the sporting subculture.





  • An exploratory study of how destination marketing organizations pursue the sports tourism market
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management

    Author(s): Richard W. Pouder, J. Dana Clark, George G. Fenich

    In recent years, destination marketing organizations (DMOs) have taken advantage of the opportunities that sports tourism offers their communities. Although researchers acknowledge the important role played by DMOs in pursuing the sports tourism market, little is known about how they actually do so. This study is an exploratory attempt to identify specifically what actions DMOs have taken to seize these emerging opportunities. Using a five-step analytic approach in interviews with DMO officials, four groups of dominant themes that DMOs considered in their pursuit of the sports market were identified. Each of these themes is discussed and their implications for practice and future research are considered.





  • Indigenous Australian women promoting health through sport
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Megan Stronach, Hazel Maxwell, Sonya Pearce

    The authors explore the sporting experiences and community strengths of Indigenous Australian women. The intention is to inform both health promotion and contemporary sport management strategies, and policies and practices, leading to better health outcomes for this cohort. The authors employ an interpretative qualitative methodology, which involves the combination of data from a range of sources, including interviews and focus groups with 22 Indigenous women living in urban and rural areas, narratives from elite Indigenous athletes and coaches, as well as findings from a recent Australian Parliamentary inquiry into Indigenous health and wellbeing. Drawing from an agency/empowerment theoretical framework, the authors posit that, given support and opportunities, Indigenous women can become empowered to improve their mental and physical health through participation in sport. Sport managers can facilitate Indigenous women's agency in the effects of colonisation, which continues to be the basis of health issues for this cohort. Listening to Indigenous women and facilitating opportunities for them to take control of their own participation can help facilitate this process. Indigenous-women's only opportunities, partnerships with health agencies and sports organisations, culturally safe spaces and Indigenous women acting as role models are some factors that may augment Indigenous women's agency, and thus empowerment. Government, sports, community organisations and health agencies which provide these conditions in their program design can help to overcome entrenched social, historical and health inequalities that Indigenous women may experience.





  • Paired comparison models with age effects modeled as piecewise quadratic splines
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
    Source:International Journal of Forecasting

    Author(s): Kenji Araki, Yoshihiro Hirose, Fumiyasu Komaki

    We propose new models for analyzing pairwise comparison data, such as that relating to sports. We focus on changes in players’ strengths and the prediction of future results. Our models are based on the Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley–Terry models, and make use of the time variation in the parameters. Furthermore, we apply our models to data from the Japanese traditional sport sumo, and analyze this data. The proposed models perform better than the standard Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley–Terry models according to both the Akaike information criterion and the Brier score. We compare the proposed models in detail by focusing on individual sumo wrestlers.





  • Spectators’ emotional responses in tweets during the Super Bowl 50 game
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Yonghwan Chang

    The author explored spectators’ emotional reactions manifested on social media. By using Twitter search application programming interface, 328,000 real-time tweets posted by fans of the Panthers and the Broncos during the Super Bowl 50 game were collected. The lexicon-based text mining approach (a big data analysis in social media analytics) was employed to classify tweets into five different emotions. The findings indicated that spectators expressed positive emotions when their team scored; conversely, they expressed negative emotions when the opposite team scored. Interestingly, spectators became habituated with each subsequent score from either of their preferred teams, which resulted in fewer expressions of emotions. However, when a team scored soon after the opposite team scored, fans expressed a surge of positive or negative emotions, accordingly. The results supported both the theories of affective disposition and opponent-process. Spectators’ simultaneous experience of positive and negative emotions may contribute to fans’ satisfaction, continued patronage, and mental health.





  • Did London 2012 deliver a sports participation legacy?
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Themis Kokolakakis, Fernando Lera-López, Girish Ramchandani

    Despite the increasing academic interest in the analysis of the Olympic legacy, there is a relative knowledge gap as far as sports participation legacy is concerned. The authors bridge this gap by analysing the short-term sports participation legacy of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on the adult population in England. By using data from the Active People Survey and considering different sports participation variables and the effect of the economic climate, results demonstrate a positive association with participation from hosting the Games. Participation rates were adjusted to take into account seasonality and changes in the gross domestic product (GDP), accounting in this way for the effect of the recent economic recession. The biggest effect was observed in relation to frequent participation (at least three times per week for at least 30 min) in the year immediately after the Games. In 2014, the sports participation rates fell relative to 2013 but remained higher than pre-Olympic levels. The sport participation legacy of the Olympic Games appeared to have significant differences between socio-demographic groups.





  • Host residents’ role in sporting events: The city image perspective
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Daichi Oshimi, Munehiko Harada

    The purpose of this study was to identify the antecedent and outcome variables of host city image perceptions, and to analyze how these perceptions impact behavioral intentions from the residents’ viewpoint. To this end, the authors constructed a structural model, distributed questionnaires to residents in Saitama City for the Tour de France Saitama Criterium held in Japan from 2014 to 2016, and collected 636 usable responses. The results verified that the fit between host city and sporting event is a useful antecedent variable of city image. Furthermore, place attachment to host city was identified as an outcome variable. Development of these two variables could benefit behavioral intentions, suggesting that residents play an important role in sporting event development. In addition, the authors found that hosting a sporting event leads to place attachment among residents through fit between host city and sporting event and city image perceptions. Thus, hosting a sporting event has two potential impacts—one each on the event organizer and the host city—from the residents’ viewpoint. It benefits the organizers by developing the residents’ behavioral intentions and has a social impact on the host city through an enhancement in their place attachment.





  • The antecedents and consequences of positive organizational behavior: The role of psychological capital for promoting employee well-being in sport organizations
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Minjung Kim, Amy Chan Hyung Kim, Joshua I. Newman, Gerald R. Ferris, Pamela L. Perrewé

    A positive approach to addressing mental health issues in workplaces advocates the examination of an untapped resource—psychological capital—as a potential positive construct in contemporary organizational behavior. The authors tested various antecedents and outcomes of psychological capital, and examined the role of this construct in psychological well-being and job satisfaction among sport employees. To test 11 hypotheses, the researchers recruited 708 employees from the athletic departments of Division I institutions. Results indicate that the meaningful work of employees and a supportive organizational climate positively influenced psychological capital, thereby leading to high levels of job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Psychological capital also functioned either as a partial mediator or as a full mediator. In this study, the authors offer a new perspective on sport employees’ mental health outcomes, with particular emphasis on positive organizational behavior in sport settings.





  • Social signaling and interorganizational relationships: Lessons learned from the professional sports industry
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
    Source:Business Horizons

    Author(s): Richard A. Posthuma, Gabriela L. Flores, Matthew A. Barlow, James B. Dworkin

    In today’s connected economy, interorganizational relationships are increasingly important. Whether government-to-government, political party-to-political party, business-to-business, department-to-department, or some other interorganizational pairing, these relationships can provide organizations with signals used to identify and better respond to changes in their environment and in their interorganizational relationships. This enables astute organizations to not only understand how others will interpret the social signals they send, but also to shape those signals in ways that will improve their interorganizational relationships. We illustrate this herein, using the public and readily recognizable relationships involved with labor relations in the professional sports industry. We show how social signals can explain the way organizations change and adapt to their environments, and how these changes send messages to related organizations. Finally, we provide a set of recommended advice for managers based on this case analysis.





  • Sporting hyperchallenges: Health, social, and fiscal implications
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Matthew Lamont, Millicent Kennelly

    There has been a rise in sport-focused event management organisations staging increasingly challenging quests for amateur athletes. Whilst endeavours such as running a marathon or completing an Ironman triathlon were previously pinnacle achievements for amateur athletes, sporting hyperchallenges, events covering greater distances, crossing more difficult terrain, or posing more extreme challenges have set the performance bar significantly higher. Cast against Western neoliberal backdrops the ever-expanding supply-side of this market is broadening opportunities for amateur athletes to test their physical limits, thus necessitating investment of inordinate personal resources. Simultaneously, there is growing empirical and anecdotal evidence suggesting unfavourable impacts can flow from intensely pursuing extreme endurance sports including impacts to athletes’ health and relationships. The authors draw upon intertwined theories of business ethics and corporate social responsibility to critique business practices of sport-focused event management organisations delivering sporting hyperchallenges. The authors propose a conceptual framework aimed at encouraging future research into potential health, social, and fiscal implications stemming from this complex, unregulated market.





  • Is it worth the price? The role of perceived financial risk, identification, and perceived value in purchasing pay-per-view broadcasts of combat sports
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Stephen L. Shapiro, Lamar Reams, Kevin Kam Fung So

    Perceived risk, identification, and perceived value play a critical role in consumer behavior. Although previous researchers have examined identification and perceived value, examination of mediated sport consumption is lacking. Additionally, risk has received limited attention within this context. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between identification, perceived value, and purchase intentions, and to assess the moderating role of perceived financial risk within the context of combat sports pay-per-view purchases. Combat sport consumers (N = 364) participated in an online survey. Findings showed that identification had a positive association with perceived value and purchase intentions. Perceived value was directly associated with purchase intentions and partially mediated the relationship between identification and purchase intentions. However, perceived financial risk did not moderate the value-intentions relationship. These findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior by (a) extending the understanding of identification, value, and purchase intentions in a mediated consumption environment, and (b) advancing knowledge on the role of financial risk in this setting. As advances in technology continue, it is important to understand the role of attitudes and behavior, and the potential impact of perceived risk on purchases of mediated sport programming.





  • How does a component from a supplier with high reputation for product innovation improve the perception of a final offering? A process perspective
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:European Management Journal, Volume 36, Issue 2

    Author(s): Christian Linder, Sven Seidenstricker

    An excellent reputation for product innovation (RPI) is an intangible asset for any company and promises a sustainable competitive advantage. This study empirically analyzes the spillover effects of a high component supplier's RPI to the offering of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The results show that there are positive effects to be gained from the innovativeness of a component supplier, which increases the perceived performance of the final offering containing the supplier's product. In addition, the study demonstrates that such a strategic partnership between a component supplier and an OEM has the potential to influence the purchase intention of the final consumer in a positive manner, thereby creating value for both parties. Contributions are made to a better understanding of strategic options for such a partnership and to an on-going discussion on RPI and the importance of intangible attributes in innovation management.





  • Living with imperfect comparisons: The challenges and limitations of comparative paralympic sport policy research
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Mathew Dowling, Phil Brown, David Legg, Aaron Beacom

    In this article, the authors explores the challenges and limitations of conducting cross-comparative management/policy research in the Paralympic sporting domain. The comparative sport policy debate in able-bodied sport has emerged, in part, due to the increasing complexity, uncertainty, and competitive nature of high performance sport environments and a desire to understand why some countries are more successful than others at international sporting competition. The same issues and questions have also emerged within the Paralympic context. As a precursor to establishing a research agenda in this area, however, it was deemed important to begin to address the epistemological, methodological, and practical issues in comparative sport research. The analysis draws upon the broader sociological literature and examples from the Paralympic sporting context to identify and discuss the challenges and limitations of the comparative approach as well as recommendations for mitigating against them.





  • Sport team personality: It’s not all about winning!
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Ashley Stadler Blank, Joerg Koenigstorfer, Hans Baumgartner

    As there is still no commonly accepted scale to measure the brand personality of sport teams, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Sport Team Personality Scale (STPS) in a professional sport context. The authors conducted a series of studies in the United States and United Kingdom with fans of the English Premier League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Football League, and the National Hockey League. The STPS contains 18 items that load onto six factors: success, talent, entertainment, dedication, admiration, and care. The authors compared this new scale with existing sport team personality scales and used it to explore team identification and perceptual similarities and differences among teams. Results indicate that teams map along performance (i.e., success and talent) and character (i.e., admiration and care) factors and that the character factor is a more important source of team identification than the performance factor. Taken together, these results illustrate how the STPS can help sport managers position and differentiate teams within a league to improve marketing outcomes.





  • Developmental processes and motivations for linkages in cross-sectoral sport clusters
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Anna Gerke, Kathy Babiak, Geoff Dickson, Michel Desbordes

    Interorganisational linkages are a widely studied topic in sport management. However, most researchers focus on public or non-profit organisations and analyse one focal organisation rather than a network of interrelated organisations. The purpose of this study was to address both of these shortcomings by investigating interorganisational linkages in sport clusters, a type of cross-sectoral network. The authors address three main questions: (a) what is the nature of interorganisational linkages in sport clusters; (b) how do linkages in sport clusters develop; and (c) what are the organisational motivations for creating or joining linkages in sport clusters? A multiple case study approach explores two sailing clusters in France and New Zealand. Results show that interorganisational relationships tend to be formalised, while interorganisational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process from formal relationships to formal networks via informal relationships and networks was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of interorganisational linkages. This research contributes to sport management practice by showcasing the potential multitude and variety of interorganisational linkages in a cross-sectoral sport context which are foundations for cooperation and collaboration. The theoretical contribution lies in the conceptualising of the IOR development process and different motivational patterns as antecedents.





  • Sports fan experience: Electronic word-of-mouth in ephemeral social media
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Lane T. Wakefield, Gregg Bennett

    Fans consuming sporting events commonly use social media to spread electronic-word-of-mouth (eWOM) related to their experiences. Ephemeral social media, an emerging form of social media that auto-deletes content after a prescribed time, allows fans to have greater control over their messages than ever before. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate factors leading fans to lengthen or shorten the lifespan of their social media content. A nationwide panel (N =242) created social media content in a controlled setting in which the fan experience and audience size were manipulated. Results suggest fans having a positive experience or who were broadcasting to a large audience were likely to share their content for a longer period of time. In contrast, fans having other than positive experiences, sharing with a small audience, or displaying greater team identification wished to limit the availability of their content. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.





  • Challenges and strategies of building and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships in sport for development and peace
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Jon Welty Peachey, Adam Cohen, Nari Shin, Bruno Fusaro

    While sport management scholars have explored inter-organizational partnerships and their associated challenges, they have devoted less attention to inter-organizational partnership development and sustainability in sport for development and peace (SDP), particularly across a wide range of organizations with varied missions and foci. Hence, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine challenges faced by SDP organizations when forming and sustaining inter-organizational partnerships across contexts and partnership types, and to uncover strategies they have employed to overcome these challenges. Common challenges encountered across 29 SDP organizations included competition for resources, skepticism of sport as a development tool, unequal power relations, misaligned goals and mission drift, and implementation issues. Strategies included focusing on building relationships and networks, demonstrating benefits to partner, starting small then diversifying, keeping focused on mission and goals, involving partner, and treating the partnership as a business relationship. Theoretical extensions and practical implications are discussed, along with directions for future research.





  • Explaining attendance through the brand community triad: Integrating network theory and team identification
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Matthew Katz, Rose Marie Ward, Bob Heere

    In this study, the authors empirically test a model of sport behaviour that integrates both team identification and a network theory approach to understand attendance at intercollegiate ice hockey games. Grounded within the brand community triad, ego network data were collected among attendees to measure the fan-to-fan connections that constitute the horizontal relationships of brand community participants. Additionally, a multidimensional team identification measure was used to illustrate the vertical relationship between individual and team. Both measures were included in a structural equation model to test how both fan-to-fan and fan-team relationships explain attendance. The results from the model support the salience of both dimensions of the brand community triad, suggesting that understanding sport fan behaviour necessitates including both psychological and structural elements of behaviour. Future suggestions for extending the study of sport fans through structural networks are discussed.





  • Social and charitable impacts of a charity-affiliated sport event: A mixed methods study
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 2

    Author(s): Yuhei Inoue, Caroline Heffernan, Taku Yamaguchi, Kevin Filo

    In this mixed methods research, the authors examine a unique type of small-scale event – a charity-affiliated sport event – and define and measure its social and charitable impacts as perceived by residents. Findings from interviews (N =37) and surveys (N =459) with residents indicated that the event’s social impacts can be defined by its capacity to develop social capital, enhance collective identity and pride, and promote sport, health, and well-being. Three types of charitable impacts also emerged, including empathy for cause, informational support, and tangible support. Of them, empathy for cause, which addresses a central social issue in the host community, had the strongest association with residents’ perceptions of social impacts. These results provide evidence of a variety of positive impacts that a charity-affiliated sport event has on a community, which can be used to bolster appeals for corporate sponsorship and government support to assist in event delivery.





  • Estimating willingness to pay for a cycling event using a willingness to travel approach
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: April 2018
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 65

    Author(s): John C. Whitehead, Pamela Wicker

    This study examines the monetary value of nonmarket benefits to participants of an active sport tourism event, such as happiness and pride from participating in an event. Willingness to travel (WTT) greater distances for future events is assessed and converted into willingness to pay (WTP) estimates using travel costs. Using survey data from the 2014 and 2015 Blood Sweat Gears bike ride, the intended visitation models show that changes in travel cost have a significant negative effect. WTP to revisit the event was between $41 and $57. The likelihood of return visit decreases as travel costs increase, indicating that WTP estimates are internally valid. WTP estimates stemming from two years of data collection are stable, suggesting that they are also temporally reliable. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stated preference WTT questions to assign a monetary value to nonmarket benefits of active sport tourists.





  • Sponsor-event congruence effects: The moderating role of sport involvement and mediating role of sponsor attitudes
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 18 March 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Jakeun Koo, Younghan Lee

    The authors examine the moderating effect of sport involvement in the association between sponsor-event congruence and consumer responses. University students (N = 118) took part in the experiment. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results show that sport involvement moderates the effectiveness of sponsor-event congruence on sponsor credibility, influencing attitude toward the sponsor and intention to purchase the sponsor’s product. Research findings imply that a sponsorship campaign, in which sponsor-event congruence occurs, may have the power to deliver a product relevant message to consumers who are involved in sports via a central route.





  • Team identification and sports fandom as predictors of fan aggression: The moderating role of ageing
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Anat Toder-Alon, Tamar Icekson, Avichai Shuv-Ami

    In the current study, the explored the moderating role of ageing in the relationship between team identification/fandom and fan aggression. The authors used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a realworld population of sports fans. Participants were 740 fans of Israeli professional basketball. Results from structural equation modelling demonstrated that older fans reported higher levels of mere sports fandom and lower levels of self-reported aggression and acceptance of aggression. Moreover, age moderated the relationships between team identification (or fandom) and self-reported aggression, such that team identification (or fandom) was more strongly associated with selfreported fan aggression among younger fans than among older fans. The moderating role of age in the relationships between team identification (or fandom) and perceptions of appropriateness of aggression was not supported. The findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of the role of ageing in the relationship between fan identification and fan aggression. Based on these findings, the authors assert that managers might particularly benefit from leveraging the potential, but often neglected, segment of senior fans, since older fans can play a key role in reducing the level of aggression during competitive sports events. Suggestions for future research are also discussed.





  • Bridging the gap between social media and behavioral brand loyalty
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: March–April 2018
    Source:Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 28

    Author(s): Masayuki Yoshida, Brian S. Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, Shigeki Shibuya, Naoyuki Fujiwara

    Integrating several streams of theoretical reasoning such as social identity theory and customer engagement theory, this study examines the relationship between consumer responses in social media networks and behavioral brand loyalty in the context of Japanese professional sports: football and baseball. Data were collected from 309 panel registrants of an online research panel service. Based on the analysis, user characteristics as an opinion seeker and the entertainment value of social media pages were found to positively influence online brand community identification which in turn had a positive effect on brand-related social media engagement. Further, brand-related social media engagement and team identification, a type of consumer-brand identification, simultaneously affected behavioral brand loyalty. The theoretical model and results reinforced the importance of brand-related social media engagement toward behavioral brand loyalty, and added new insights into the antecedents of consumer engagement in the brand-related use of social media.





  • Intramural sports' participation produce self-efficacy in hospitality leaders
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: March 2018
    Source:Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Volume 34

    Author(s): James A. Williams, Eric A. Brown, Miranda Kitterlin, Stefanie Benjamin

    This study explored sports' experiences of 11 hospitality leaders who played sports while completing a hospitality undergraduate degree. A multiple coder and triangulation approach was employed to highlight four major themes: confidence, communication, critical thinking, and collaboration. These themes were grouped together to form soft skills tailor-made for self-efficacy development. Sports (i.e., basketball, volleyball, and football) function as a staple for the development of soft skills (intangible skill sets or attributes). Sports furnish individuals with opportunities to perform in teams, to lead others, and to operate under pressure-filled situations. Results indicated that college sport's participation is an effectual way to grow future hospitality leaders pivotal soft skills for the 21st century workforce.





  • Coworker knowledge sharing and peer learning among elite footballers: Insights from German Bundesliga players
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Kim Werner, Geoff Dickson

    This research focuses on coworker learning and knowledge sharing amongst elite footballers. The authors provide an in-depth understanding on how elite footballers learn from their peers and which channels are used to share their knowledge. The authors also analyze how peer learning impacts an elite footballer’s development and performance and to what extent elite football clubs actively support peer learning. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 elite footballers from first and second division German Bundesliga clubs. The findings demonstrate that peers are very important sources of knowledge for elite footballers. There are four main knowledge sharing channels: observing/imitating, peer exchange/peer communication, labor mobility and knowledge brokers. The findings highlight the positive impact of knowledge sharing on elite players’ development and performance and call for future (knowledge) management tactics to specifically use this untapped potential.





  • Results of a utilization-focused evaluation of a Right To Play program for Indigenous youth
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 66

    Author(s): Alexandra Arellano, Tanya Halsall, Tanya Forneris, Cindy Gaudet

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Promoting Life Skills for Aboriginal Youth (PLAY) program that is operated by Right to Play (RTP). The focus of the program is to help youth develop a variety of life skills and become leaders within their communities. Piloted in 2010 with 2 communities, the program is now implemented in 88 communities in Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Alberta. This study applies a utilization-focused evaluation to examine staff perceptions related to program implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis was performed. Themes emerged related to: 1) Integrating program flexibility to help facilitate community ownership, 2) Building capacity through skills training for Community Mentors (CMs), 3) Having a motivated staff and organizational learning, 4) Balancing the integration of culture and 5) Challenges related to adapting to multiple stakeholders and program pace. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant literature and recommendations for program improvements are provided. We also describe program improvements that were made as a result of applying the findings. This research contributes to the expanding literature related to programming for youth and evaluation practice within Indigenous communities.





  • eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): George B. Cunningham, Sheranne Fairley, Lesley Ferkins, Shannon Kerwin, Daniel Lock, Sally Shaw, Pamela Wicker

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management scholarship and discourse. Such a position is consistent with the broad view of sport adopted by Sport Management Review, the perspective that eSport represents a form of sportification, and the association among eSport and various outcomes, including physical and psychological health, social well-being, sport consumption outcomes, and diversity and inclusion. Finally, the authors conclude that eSport scholarship can advance through the study of its governance, marketing, and management as well as by theorizing about eSport.





  • eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Daniel C. Funk, Anthony D. Pizzo, Bradley J. Baker

    Consumer demand for eSport and the growth of organized video game competitions has generated considerable attention from the sport, event, and entertainment industries. eSport therefore represents a novel and popular area for sport management academics to conduct research, educate students, and service industry. However, despite growth and acceptance by consumers and practitioners, academics debate eSport’s position within the domain of sport management, their debates largely concentrated around the question of whether eSport can be classified as sport. In this article, the authors argue for the inclusion of organized eSport events and competitions within sport management vis-à-vis eSport’s meeting certain defining criteria of sport in general. eSport’s connection to traditional sport and defining characteristics are addressed to support eSport’s role as a sport entertainment product recognized by industry as representing a substantial growth opportunity for sport and related organizations. As eSport continues to evolve, practitioners face managerial challenges that are similar to those in traditional sport, particularly in areas of governance and diversity. Sport management academics should embrace the potential of eSport in order to examine this evolution and provide guidance to industry through education and research.





  • Embracing the sportification of society: Defining e-sports through a polymorphic view on sport
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Bob Heere

    In this paper, the author argues that, regardless of whether e-sports qualify as sports, they should be examined in sport management because they are a manifestation of sportification. Sportification means to either: (a) view, organize, or regulate a non-sport activity in such a way that it resembles a sport and allows a fair, pleasurable, and safe environment for individuals to compete and cooperate, and compare their performances to each other, and future and past performances; or (b) add a sport component to an existing activity in order to make it more attractive to its audiences. As the sport industry itself is embracing e-sports as a sport, scholars should embrace e-sports as a manifestation of sportification and examine their negative and positive effect on our industry.





  • Participatory research in sport-for-development: Complexities, experiences and (missed) opportunities
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Ramón Spaaij, Nico Schulenkorf, Ruth Jeanes, Sarah Oxford

    In this paper, the authors examine how participatory research can be conceptualized and fostered in sport-for-development (SfD). The authors offer a conceptualization of participatory research that centers on the interplay between three dimensions: participation, power, and reflexivity. Drawing on variegated experiences with SfD research across different geographical locations, the authors scrutinize the conceptual and empirical linkages between these dimensions, and how these linkages are influenced by structures of authority. Findings suggest that most SfD research falls short with regard to the critical challenge of embracing and delivering high degrees of participation, power shifting, and reflexivity. More specifically, SfD researchers typically fail to relinquish power and control over the research process. The SfD research community would likely benefit from greater inclusivity and collaboration when designing creative ways to improve this state of affairs. The authors conclude by reflecting on the implications and by suggesting ways to promote participatory and activist research in SfD contexts.





  • ‘Yes we are inclusive’: Examining provision for young people with disabilities in community sport clubs
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Ruth Jeanes, Ramón Spaaij, Jonathan Magee, Karen Farquharson, Sean Gorman, Dean Lusher

    The last two decades within Australia have witnessed a range of policies and strategies seeking to promote the inclusion of young people with disabilities within mainstream community sport clubs. Whilst research at an institutional level has highlighted the problems with mainstreaming agendas, few studies have examined how grassroots clubs, as key components of the supply side of inclusive provision seek to respond to such policy imperatives. In this paper, therefore, the authors provide a critical analysis of the ways in which clubs engage with inclusion policies in practice. Theoretically, the authors draw on the concept of policy enactment and educational inclusivity. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with club volunteers, the findings illustrate three key areas. Firstly, the importance of individual volunteers in establishing and developing provision within clubs; secondly, the largely separatist nature of disability provision within clubs; and thirdly, that policies tend to encourage club to focus on narrow forms of participation that lead to competitive pathways and mirror the structure of mainstream sport. In the conclusion, the authors problematize the notion of inclusion presented in policy and practice, suggesting such imperatives do not encourage a holistic approach.





  • LGBTQ parents’ experiences of community youth sport: Change your forms, change your (hetero) norms
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Dawn E. Trussell, Laura Kovac, Jen Apgar

    This interpretive study sought to critically examine lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) parents’ experiences of community organized youth sport. Using a constant comparative method of data analysis, the authors examined perspectives of participants from Australia, Canada, and the United States. Three emergent themes best reflected the parents’ experiences: (a) anticipating sexual stigma and finding accepting communities; (b) confronting assumptions of heterosexuality; and (c) educating but not flag waving. Emphasis is placed on the parents intersecting social identities and notions of privilege (e.g., socio-economic resources and the ability to live in socially progressive areas), and how it altered their experiences within the community youth sport context. The findings call attention to the responsibility of youth sport organisations to create a climate of social change through inclusive language, behaviours, and program design.





  • Long-term impact of the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games on sport participation: A cohort analysis
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1

    Author(s): Kurumi Aizawa, Ji Wu, Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato

    The sport participation rate has been shown to decrease with age in many countries. In Japan, however, the elderly sport participation rate has increased over the last decade and is the highest among all Japanese. This study investigated whether the cohort effect generated by the shared experience of hosting the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games during their youth can explain the increased sport participation of elderly Japanese. Data from the Japanese National Sport-Life Survey over 20 years were analyzed through regression analysis. The results show that, after controlling for demographics and other determinants of sport participation, individuals who experienced the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games participated in sport more frequently than other generations.





  • Sport participation: From policy, through facilities, to users’ health, well-being, and social capital
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Harish Kumar, Argyro Elisavet Manoli, Ian R. Hodgkinson, Paul Downward

    Sport delivery systems, aimed at facilitating sports participation, represent an inter-institutional, cross-sector collaboration. Researchers focusing on the impact of different levels of sport provision from policy, through facilities, to end users remains limited. The authors address this gap in knowledge through a mixed- methods approach to examine sport participation from the perspective of the whole delivery system. Specifically, focusing on a County Sport Partnership region in the UK, the authors examine sport participation from the policy (macro), facility (meso), and end user (micro) levels. Regional heads responsible for sport development and delivery participated in semi-structured interviews, facility-level managers completed a survey, and end-users across public, private, and outsourced facilities participated in focus groups. Results show a clear divergence between the sport policy goals across the private and public sectors, with significant differences observed between facility types on their social and commercial objectives and their prioritized stakeholder groups. The divergence has little impact on user participation or expression of health, wellbeing, and social capital, offering new evidence on the role of neoliberalism in sport delivery systems.





  • A calibration method with dynamic updates for within-match forecasting of wins in tennis
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
    Source:International Journal of Forecasting

    Author(s): Stephanie Kovalchik, Machar Reid

    In-match predictions of player win probabilities for professional tennis matches have a wide range of potential applications, including betting, fan engagement, and performance evaluation. The ideal properties of an in-play prediction method include the ability to incorporate both useful pre-match information and relevant in-match information as the match progresses, in order to update the pre-match expectations. This paper presents an in-play forecasting method that achieves both of these goals by combining a pre-match calibration method with a dynamic empirical Bayes updating rule. We present an optimisation rule for guiding the specifications of the dynamic updates using a large sample of professional tennis matches. We apply the results to data from the 2017 season and show that the dynamic model provides a 28% reduction in the error of in-match serve predictions and improves the win prediction accuracy by four percentage points relative to a constant ability model. The method is applied to two Australian Open men’s matches, and we derive several corollary statistics to highlight key dynamics in the win probabilities during a match.





  • Investor sentiment, soccer games and stock returns
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: January 2018
    Source:Research in International Business and Finance, Volume 43

    Author(s): Nebojsa Dimic, Manfred Neudl, Vitaly Orlov, Janne Äijö

    This study investigates the nature of stock price reactions of publicly-traded soccer clubs following league matches. Consolidating data on soccer games and betting odds, results suggest that the magnitude and the character of investor reactions vary considerably after the release of negative and positive information. Price response to positive information increases in surprise to resolution of uncertainty, while bad information connotes negative and vast reactions regardless of the surprise component. Moreover, negative news is more slowly absorbed by the stock market than positive news. Finally, investor reactions are larger following the games with considerable emotional component.





  • Are sport tourists of an environmental mindset to drive the green? The case of golfers
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: January 2018
    Source:Tourism Management Perspectives, Volume 25

    Author(s): Dino M. Minoli, Mark M.H. Goode, Aidan W. Metcalfe

    This study makes several unique contributions to the fields of environmental psychology, sport tourism and environmental management programmes. Firstly, it evaluates golfers' environmental worldviews using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) attitudinal-measurement scale. Data were drawn from a meta-analysis and survey (n>275) in Wales, UK. Secondly, the five-step Transtheoretical model of change is applied to the average NEP score to develop a tipping point. Thirdly, the study transforms average NEP scores into a percentage and links them to a behavioural willingness to change value (70%). Interestingly, the study yielded a golfers' NEP score of 58% that did not vary with demographics. The methodology is also applied to 32 similar studies to generate NEP percentages and compare them against the NEP percentage score of willingness to change. Finally, the golfers' NEP percentage value is visually presented on a behaviour change thermostat as a simple means to engage stakeholders' discussion on this topic.





  • Estimation of game-level attendance in major league soccer: Outcome uncertainty and absolute quality considerations
    25 mai 2018
    Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills

    Despite its continued growth, there are doubts about the sustainability of demand for Major League Soccer, which has a strong focus on superstar externalities through its designated player rules. Yet there is relatively limited research directly focusing on classical determinants of demand for league attendance. The authors set out to establish an estimate of the relative importance of relative quality – outcome uncertainty – and absolute quality in game attendance. They find that fans behave in ways more consistent with the loss aversion hypothesis than the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis, with considerable interest in both home and away team absolute quality.





Mis à jour le 13 mars 2013